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It is well known that Okinawan karate or Te was formally introduced to mainland Japan in 1922, almost one hundred years ago by Gichin Funakoshi (below far left).
Though other Okinawan masters such as Motobu (above center) and Uechi (above far right) came to Japan during the same period, their activities did not bear fruit, mainly because they did not promote their karate in Tokyo. Funakoshi, on the other hand, migrated to Tokyo and promoted his art to the university students because he could speak standard Japanese. Thus, he is remembered as the Father of modern day karate.
Since introducing Okinawa te in the early 20th century, he made many changes such as the names of kata from the original names that made little sense to the Japanese to ones that made sense to them. He also changed some of the techniques such as de-emphasizing neko ashi dachi and created kokutsu dachi. He exchanged some of the mae geri techniques to yoko geri keage in many kata. He created or designed the karate gi and belt that we are very familiar with now. There were many other changes but today I will introduce only one. If you are interested in other changes, I have already written a few essays on this subject that can be found in my books. One of the chapters is titled, “New Techniques by Funakoshi?” in Shotokan Mysteries.
OK enough of the introduction. Today I want to bring up one karate concept, a very important one as well, that is almost forgotten by karate practitioners. The concept is aite wo suemono ni suru (相手を据え物にする). Let me explain. The first word “aite wo” means your opponent. The second one is the key word, “suemono”. One of the most popular meaning of this word is used in Iaido. It is a roll of straw that is used for a cutting exercise with a sword to check its cutting ability (photo right). The original use of this word came from the time of the samurai. It meant a dead body or a living criminal sentenced to death, instead of a straw roll. The suemon was cut by the samurai to check the cutting ability of their swords when they executed the criminal (photo below). You can see, the body is tied down firmly so that it would not move when it is being cut. This is the key point to help you understand the concept. The last word of the concept, “ni suru” means to make or set. So, all together the sentence means, to make an opponent into a still target.
Now you understand the meaning of the Japanese sentence but I suspect the readers are not exactly sure what it means, unless you have learned about this in the past. In order to truly understand the meaning of this sentence, we need to look at a short history of karate in the past 60 years or so.
I assume most of the readers know that the original te was budo or martial art. That was what Funakoshi and other Okinawan masters brought to Japan nearly a century ago. I cannot say what the other Okinawan masters thought about introducing tournaments or shiai (試合) to karate. I can say, at least, Funakoshi was firmly against it until his death. It is true that there were many informal (not approved) shiai between the university karate clubs located in Tokyo. They did not call it shiai or tournament but koryukai (交流会), a “friendship meeting”. The formal tournament, All Japan Championship hosted by JKA had to wait till 1957, the year Funakoshi passed.
As shiai or sport karate has become so popular these days, we are so accustomed to that kumite style and you would mistakenly believe the “killing” techniques seen in the matches are the real and only effective techniques. If you were ever in a street fight in the past, you are well aware the real situation is far different from the shiai kumite matches. First of all, the distance is completely different in most of the cases. There is no “Hajime” or “Yame”. You may have multiple opponents and you may not know if they have the weapons. This is why zanshin, a special mindset of full awareness, is extremely important in martial arts. In addition, the Okinawan masters knew one secret technique that is in the sentence I am sharing with you now.
It is well known that Makiwara training is considered to be one of the very important items in the training menu. Interestingly, I know that some of the Western style boxers have criticized that punching a stationary target has little worth in boxing. They say that their opponent is always moving so it is better to practice punching with a moving target. They also do not need to toughen their fists as they wear gloves. I can understand why they would say that and it would make sense when you watch how kumite matches are conducted as the competitors are moving around almost all the time.
If this is the case, why did the ancient Okinawan masters talk about suemono (fixed or tied down body)? Did the Okinawan people fight without moving? Or were the Okinawan fighters unable to move fast? I do not think so and I am sure the readers will agree with me. Some of the readers may know that the nickname of Choki Motobu was Monkey because he could climb up fences and to rooftops easily. If that is the case, we can hardly believe he could only move slowly.
Once you understand the true meaning behind this sentence, only then you will be impressed with the fantastic knowledge of the Okinawan masters. So, let me explain in detail. They knew that it was not very easy to knock down an opponent (especially another karate-ka) with one punch even though the saying of Ikken Hissatsu (one blow one kill) was used then. It is difficult simply because the opponent would be constantly moving. The effect of kicking and punching will be reduced significantly if the target moves away or closer from the spot where the attacker had assumed the opponent to be. So, they developed techniques such as deai (出会い photo right) and irimi (入り身 photo below). Those are the techniques where the defender moves in when the attacker is stepping in. In this situation, despite a high level of skill is required, the counter attack can have a great impact upon the opponent as the target is coming in.
Another technique is a tsukami (掴み grabbing) and hikiyose (引き寄せ pulling in) technique. We know what hikite is and most of the time the practitioners think it is only a movement to pull back the hand as you deliver a technique with the other hand. However, in kata many of the hikite techniques are in fact a movement of grabbing and pulling in the opponen. A good example is Tekki or Naihanchi. When you do jodan ura zuki, you are expected to grab and pull in the opponent with the other hand (photo right).
It will be much more difficult to catch an opponent who is moving back or away from you. You may need to have a skill of reaching further than the opponent would expect and some people have developed a skill to cover a much further distance than the average practitioners. This technique is called Shukuchiho (縮地法), the literal meaning is to shorten the distance method. I will not explain this technique in this essay.
Those are excellent techniques against the moving target (opponent), but the Okinawan masters came up with another brilliant idea. That is the “suemono ni suru” or stopping the opponent technique. Suemono was the fixed target such as the straw roll or a dead body. This means a technique to make your opponent stop momentarily or get into a fixed status. We all agree that it is much easier to punch or kick if the opponent is fixed in one spot. In Iaido, of course the suemono is a rolled straw and it would not move. In samurai time, the dead or living body is tied down at the wrists and the ankles, so the body would not move. In karate, certainly the opponent is completely free to move.
What is very interesting and brilliant is that this suemono technique in karate not only makes the opponent stay in one spot but also makes his mental condition as unexpected. Have you ever experienced the following situation? You were walking down a staircase and you thought you completed all the steps, but there was one more step. What had happened to you? I bet you either tripped or at least had a big shock to your leg stepping down and you almost fell down. This comes from an unsuspecting mind. This happens in a dark house at night or if you are looking at something else while you are coming down the steps.
OK you understand in general that this technique or method can bring an effective result. But, the opponents are constantly moving so you want to know how this technique is done. There are a few methods to create this situation. In fact, tsukami waza that I had mentioned earlier can keep the opponent at a constant distance. However, the opponent can see what is happening so he can also use this opportunity (constant distance) to fight against you. Therefore, the most popular method in suemono technique is metsubushi (目潰し eye jamming or blinding) which is the direct method to make the opponent close their eyes. You will typically use the open hand and use your finger tips to either stab or swipe at the eyes.
Is this technique used in kata? Of course, you can find an obvious metsubushi (blinding) technique in some kata such as Chinte in which it is done with nihon nukite (two finger spear photo above). Some techniques may not be too obvious. A good example is Enpi. You will find a metsubushi technique following jodan age zuki (photo left). After this technique you will open your punching hand then jump in to give gedan zuki. That open hand is used to blind the eyes. Here is a photo of JKA’s Naka Tatsuya sensei where he is demonstrating the eye attack technique in Enpi (photo below). After the jodan age zuki (most likely to the opponent’s chin), you will open your hand and place your hand over the opponent face with your teisho placed at the chin. Just spread your hand then you will realize that the finger tips will naturally reach the eyes. By pushing the whole hand the opponent will be easily pushed back as you jump in to execute the gedan or chudan zuki. By the way, the right forearm goes to the other side of the head looking like right forearm jodan nagashi uke (上段流し受け). That interpretation is not incorrect but it can also be a tsukami (grabbing the opponent’s lapel or gi) and hikiyose waza, simultaneously you are striking opponent’s chudan or gedan with your left fist.
Another example of not so obvious metsubushi technique is the last two moves of Bassai Sho (photo left). The large hand movement, despite being done in a slow motion, can be an eye swipe action before doing tsukami and hikiyose technique (the other hand is also doing tsukami hikiyose technique). What happens in the actual bunkai is this. When the attacker is coming with chudan oi zuki, the defender will initially do ment arm (hikiyose), he will foot sweep at the same time. By these actions (done faster than what is shown in this kata) the attacker will fall. The defender will execute the finish attack (punch or kick) either during or after the attacker falls. This final action is deleted or hidden in this kata.
Why is it done slowly? I have touched on this before and have written an essay on this interesting subject. Let me re-state the reasons briefly here. One is for a challenging technique (i.e. the first two moves of Heian Yondan). Another is for the pressing or resisting action such as tsukami waza or kakiwake (掻き分け) waza. The third reason is a throw technique (found in Heian Godan). I suspect the last two steps of Bassai Sho may belong to the third reason, but at the same time I think there is another and better reason.
A certain move is done slowly to show there are some options that are not included in the kata. I am pretty certain about this as an uke is not the final move. In other words, there must be a counter attack after an uke. Especially an advanced kata like Bassai Sho, I cannot believe the kata creator would think of a kata where the defender (kata performer) would only foot sweep the attacker then move on to next waza combination. Without debating on this particular point, that overt upper hand movement (swinging the hand in a large horizontal and circular movement) in the last two steps can be either a neck throw or an eye swipe. By this action, the attacker will lose the momentum and will have to stop the action in the middle. This makes it much easier for the defender to foot sweep as he pulls in the opponent down-ward. This makes the attacker very vulnerable to the counter attack.
Metsubushi, blinding technique is only one way to achieve suemono in the opponent. Another popular one is to hit certain tsubo (vital points) such as Adam’s apple in the throat, solar plexus, groin, etc. initially to achieve this effect. The initial attack does not need to be too strong (of course, it could cause the instant knock out too) to achieve such an effect. The timing and the accuracy are more important than the power or the strength of the hit (strike or kick). Once (but right after) the effect of suemono is achieved, you need to deliver the kime waza (final decisive blow) to finish the fight. This timing is critically important as you can easily fail if you give too much time after the initial impact as the opponent is able to see what is happening. The situation is quite different from the mentsubushi case. You will have much more time between the initial attack and the kime wasa, as the opponent is blinded by the initial attack for a second or two or even longer depending on the degree of severity of the eye attack.
If you understand this concept and like it, you may want to evaluate different techniques that could cause a suemono effect. Unfortunately, it is not too easy to deliver this in a regular kumite training. This separates between the real fighting situation and the dojo training. How to train this kind of budo technique is another interesting subject which I hope to cover in one of the essays in the future.
The true ultimate aim in karate is to keep peace and avoid a fight. However, once you choose to fight, you want and need to knock down the opponent with one devastating technique, ikken hissatsu. The ultimate aim in sport karate is totally different. There it does not matter if your technique is one punch one kill kind. My statement here is not to degrade or totally reject sport karate. It has its place and I respect it as one of the exciting sports. At the same time, I practice the budo karate which is purely based on the budo concept of real life and death fight. From this perspective, I am afraid this valuable teaching method, that of making the opponent as a fixed target, is being forgotten or becoming a lost technique. I hope this essay will bring some attention to this subject and more people will find and appreciate the old teachings.
In ippon kumite which I consider one of the most important kumite training menu, there are many different tempos. You need to understand those tempos and be able to use them properly in order for you to improve your kumite.
- 2.0 tempo
The most popular one in the standard Shotokan karate is to block with one arm and counter with the other arm, the most typical technique being gyaku zuki. This combination is a 2.0 tempo kumite or a one two technique. Though it is most popular, unfortunately it is the least desirable one. It is ok to teach this to the beginners but the advanced students (brown belts and above) should stay away.
Why is it the least desirable tempo? It is obviously because it is the slowest one.
You may say, “Well, we practice this combination thousands of times and we can deliver one very quickly.” You may be correct, but what I am referring to is not the mechanical speed but rather a tempo. I hope you understand the difference between these two terms and the meanings. In other words, tempo 2.0 is structurally slower than tempo 1.5 or 1.0.
- 1.5 tempo
There are faster or more advanced tempos such as 1.5, 1.0, 0.5, 0.0, etc. The senior karateka are recommended to master these as they advance their ippon kumite skills. Mastering these tempos will help in jiyu ippon and jiyu kumite eventually as those kumite exercises have much less time to counter and such skill is needed as the opponent is continuously moving in those advanced kumite situations.
The typical example of tempo 1.5 is to use the same arm for the block and counter techniques. Such a combination will be faster structurally (once again I am not referring to speed but rather tempo) than 2.0 tempo such as jodan age uke and chudan gyaku zuki.
This is a video from one of the seminars I gave in 2016 in which I am showing a 1.5 tempo technique. In this example, it is a combination of chudan soto uke and jodan urazuki using the same arm. The key is you do not make these two different techniques of uke and kaeshi waza into two motions. By doing this combination in two distinctive moves you will defeat the whole concept of 1.5 tempo as it ended up becoming 2.0 tempo. You need to make those two techniques (uke and counter) into a one smooth motion. In other words, you do not stop after uke. You will move your arm continuously after uke into jodan ura zuki.
During the demonstration in this video I mentioned that this technique can be found in Kanku dai (jodan urazuki, photo above left). Another example may be found in Tekki kata. This kata happens to be an extremely important kata in Shotokan but yet it is often ignored or undermined (the combination found in the kata is jodan uchi uke and jodan ura zuki, photo above right). Try this combination in your next kumite training. The challenging part is if you can make an effective counter with a short jodan ura zuki which can be done if you are able to use your hips behind the technique.
- 1.0 tempo
Now, let me explain what tempo 1.0 is. A tempo of 1.0 means when the opponent’s attack comes the defender blocks and simultaneously counters. In other words, these two techniques (block and counter) are executed at the same time and the execution completes at the same time with the opponent’s attack. I believe we have such techniques in all Heian kata. Can you identify them? Some are hidden and may be difficult to identify but they are there.
The combination of this tempo is called morote waza (both arm technique) and it is more difficult to execute than the single arm techniques. You can easily see that using two different arms doing two different things at the same time is much more challenging than using one arm at a time. Doing age uke and gyaku zuki (photo above right), chudan uchi uke and chudan gyaku zuki, and other combinations are challenging but those specific techniques are not found in Heian kata. In Asai ryu karate, we have some kihon kata such as Junro Nidan to train those techniques.
At the seminar in Goiania Brazil in May 2016, we trained these techniques. Here is one of the videos showing a 1.0 combination, age uke and chudan gyaku zuki.
If you are a brown belt and above, you should use this combination in ippon kumite. You will easily see that the opponent does not have a chance to deliver a second attack nor a chance to escape (in jiyu ippon kumite).
Up to now I have explained what the 2.0, 1.5 and 1.0 tempos are. I am sure the readers understand that 2.0 is twice longer than 1.0. A tempo of 1.5 meaning fifty percent faster than 2.0 in the kumite concept (despite mathematically only 25% less). Once again, I must emphasize that these numbers are used simply to describe the speed of the tempos. So, a tempo of 1.5 is biomechanical structurally faster than 2.0, even though an actual 1.5 combination could be slower if it is purposely executed very slowly. So, I want to make sure that the readers to understand clearly that a tempo speed I am referring to is different from the popular mechanical speed.
In fact, you can train the 2.0 combinations such as age uke and gyaku zuki so that you may be able to execute them, maybe, as fast as the 1.5 combinations (block and counter with the same arm or leg). Honestly, this (practicing only 2.0 tempo and repeatedly) is what I witness in many or most of the Shotokan dojo training. I am writing this essay to bring your attention to that there are other and maybe, better options. It is up to you but why not expand the repertoire of your kumite techniques?
- 0.5 tempo
Next, I will briefly explain what 0.5 tempo is. As you can see, it is faster than tempo 1.0 which means the counter is done at the same time when opponent’s attack was completed. Thus, in 0.5 your counter is delivered before the opponent completes his attack or done in the middle of the attack.
There are many situations that 0.5 tempo is used. I will mention only a few examples to give you an idea of tempo 0.5. As you are, I assume, an experienced karateka, I am sure you can think of many others.
One is to kick mae geri as the opponent lunges forward with oi zuki. The photo above left shows a classic kumite demo of Kanazawa (ex-kancho of SKIF) giving mae geri to (then young) Kasuya (now chief instructor of WSKF) as he lunges forward with oizuki. You can do another 0.5 tempo by oizuki instead of mae geri. This technique is called de-ai (出合い) or “running in” technique.
Another example would be ude osae uke (forearm pressing block). You will need to step forward to block the opponent’s elbow area then press further to give either enpi uchi or yoko tetsui uchi almost simultaneously (illustration above right). This technique is another de-ai.
Lastly, many may not know one of the realistic bunkai for the first move of Bassai dai (photo below left, Funakoshi from his book, “Karatedo Kyohan”). Many people were taught, mistakenly, it is chudan uchi uke. Of course, it can be done that way if you wish to do a less effective bunkai. The better bunkai is either chudan or more effectively jodan uraken uchi. The photo on the right is in neko ashi dachi whereas it is kosa dachi in Bassai. Kosa dachi, typically, means the technique executed will be followed by a throw which is the bunkai case of the first move of Bassai. With this first move, you take a large step or almost jump in. This means it is a de-ai technique.
Interestingly, in Shorin ryu kata, Matsumura Passai (少林流松村パッサイ)
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oo9-d2dfkyU), they take two steps forward rather than a big jump found in Shotokan Bassai dai. I prefer the Shorin ryu approach as I consider it more realistic in a real fighting situation to quickly step in instead of to jump in. Regardless, both moves show that it is de-ai and it is a strong technique. It is typically called a sen no sen (先の先) technique but depending on the situation this can be a go no sen (後の先). As it will take too much space to explain about this here so I will have another posting in the future to explain about Sen no sen and Go no sen.
Finally, I will cover a tempo that is even faster than countering with a de-ai technique. I will attempt to explain what 0.0 tempo is. This concept, I expect, will be understood by many of the readers. However, it is extremely difficult to have the ability to execute this technique (of course, you need to train hard to attain this ability).
This “0.0 tempo” means you will execute the counter as soon as the opponent starts to attack. I must emphasize the timing is not after he started to move and this is why I underlined “as soon as” in the previous sentence. If your counter action is after, even slightly, that will be considered as 0.5 tempo. The timing here is rather critical and almost invisible. It is at the very moment when he initiates an aggressive move. The indication includes a flinch in the arm or shoulder, or shifting his center of gravity to kick, etc. So, this “counter” technique may look like you are hitting the opponent “before” he was going to attack you. In other words, the aggressive “move” by your opponent, most likely, will not be noticed or detected by a third person who is watching the match or the incident.
Even if you understand this timing, if you are a tournament kumite fighter, I suspect you will not care about this timing. Your concern is to gain a point against your opponent in a kumite match, thus the timing does not matter to you very much. Even if an opponent is not moving or initiating an attack, one can jump in and punch or kick an opponent.
So, this tempo is not critically important in tournament kumite. On the other hand, this becomes extremely important in a street fight. However, I must caution you that you must be very careful of when to use this tempo. Imagine what will happen if you hit your opponent who looks like he is just standing there, just like he is only a bystander. You will be sued by your opponent (even if he had the ill intention to hit you at that moment) for attacking him “first”. In this case, you will most likely lose in a court of law. I am sure the court proceedings will include circumstantial evidence such as the description of the scene, the preceding actions, verbal exchanges, etc. I am not a lawyer so I cannot say for sure but I think you will lose your case no matter how hard you try to explain it to the judge saying that you detected his initial move, say, a flinch.
So in a fist fight, you may have to use 0.5 tempo to “protect” yourself. But in other, more life threatening situations, knowing 0.0 tempo may save your life. How about if your opponent has a gun or a knife and he is intending to harm or kill you?
You will want to use this tempo in a situation where a guy is drawing a gun out or pulling a knife out of his pocket. In this case, even if the guy is not pointing a gun or a knife at you, you may want to immediately attack the opponent.
The very action of pulling out a gun or a knife I would consider as an action that threatens my life. Here is where a judgment factor comes into play. He may be doing this only to steal your wallet but not particularly wanting to harm you. In this case, it may be a wiser decision to give him your wallet rather than taking a chance of becoming a dead hero. On the other hand, if you know for sure that this guy is trying to kill you or harm you (you will need circumstantial evidence later), then you need to move as soon as a gun or a knife is pulled out. Your chance of survival decreases dramatically after the opponent aims the gun directly at you or having a knife only a few inches away from your body.
Or it can be a case when a guy is grabbing your clothes at the neck and cocking his arm over his head (photo right). In this case, he is clearly (visibly) threatening you. If he is only threatening then you have an option of not hitting the guy first. But if you saw or felt his intention was to punch you, then you can deliver the 0.0 technique at that moment. The distance is very close so if you wait until the opponent starts to throw a punch or a kick, that may be taking too much of a chance. Unless you are totally in control of the situation and you have full confidence in your ability to defend yourself under such a condition (not too many people do or can, however). If this case is considered as 0.0 tempo or not is a debatable point.
Some of the readers may say, “Wait! Isn’t it 0.5 tempo if you wait until the opponent grabs your lapel with his fist held up?” These readers are technically correct. Once an opponent engages in an aggressive action then your reaction will not be 0.0 tempo. This is why I say the statement by those readers is technically correct. At the same time, the reason why I did not consider that the right moment because of legal and ethical reasons.
From a legal point of view, without knowing the true intention of the opponent, if you punch this guy at this moment of just flinching his shoulder (before grabbing or raising his fist), you will lose in the court case. Since I am not a lawyer I am only guessing that this is going to be the case, at least in Japan and possibly in the US. I am interested in hearing from a reader who happens to have some legal background.
From an ethical perspective, can you justify yourself for punching this guy when he just flinched his shoulder while you are not 100% sure of his intention? Of course, you can only if you know that he intends to harm you or threatens you by seriously saying, “I will kill you”, then it may be a difference situation. In that case, you may take the chance to act as soon as he flinches his shoulder or arm. However, if the guy is this serious about harming you, he would not be standing still. In this case, deciding when is the right time to act or react is challenging and difficult.
In other words, it is difficult to determine precisely what physical action, in case of an opponent without a weapon, can be considered as an overt action to attack. Is it when the guy grabs your lapel or shoulder but not raising his fist? Or do you have to wait till he raises his fist? Or is it when he says, “I will kill you”? Isn’t it extremely difficult to define an aggressive action, even though you may “feel” his ill intention?
The summary of the 0.0 tempo.
This is the timing of “zero wait” between your action (attack or restraining technique) and the opponent’s initiation of his aggressive act. This tempo may not be considered as important in tournament kumite but in a real street fight or a life threatening situation, it can save your life.
- Minus 0.5 tempo
There is another tempo that is minus 0.5 (-0.5) but I will not go into this at this time. It involves detecting the ki and the nerve impulse of the opponents. I am afraid too many western readers would have an issue with this concept so I will not venture into this in this essay. However, sometime in the future, I will attempt to write an essay on this very interesting subject, particularly when I touch on Sen no sen and Sensen no sen (先先の先).
(Warning: the subject is controversial)
I am writing this essay because I found the following posting on Facebook that was written by Mr. Adrian Linton on July 28. I received his permission to quote it here.
Please stop asking me if I’m alright I just a karateka that can’t handle bullshit especially from karateka that can’t aply karate in the street I really love honest martial artists that are open minded I hate the ones who think the Japanese karateka are gods most of them wouldn’t win a fight in a children’s playground never mind the street I was looking at jks okamoto sensei the other day fantastic techniques and kata but her street abilities are none existant so why is that different from sports karate I refuse to say much respect now because I have my own personal views on karate oss Adrian (cut and pasted from his Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100009324319741&fref=ts)
This posting hit my eyes by chance the other day and I felt I needed to address some of the points he brought up. It is easy to see that he was upset and sounded frustrated. As I read it I realized immediately that his frustration was something that is probably shared by many other karateka.
He brought up several important issues and I found at least two of them were very valid. I decided to make my opinion public as I figured the readers would be interested in hearing an opinion of a Japanese instructor. Before I dive into my comment, I need to make myself clear that I do not support every statement he made. For instance, I feel a statement about JKS’ Sensei Okamoto (photo left) was not fair. As far as I know, her street abilities have never been verified or tested. Mr. Linton may know something I do not to make such a statement. Regardless, it would have been fairer if he had explained why he came to that conclusion.
Anyway, let me move on to the two points he made in his posting.
1) The Japanese karateka are not gods.
2) The karateka who can’t apply karate in the street are the same as sport karateka.
Here are my thoughts.
I fully agree with his opinion. Though I am very proud of being Japanese, I do not think a Japanese karate sensei should be treated as a god. I am sure my comment will upset some of the Japanese sensei and their followers. I have heard stories in which some Japanese sensei had made some unreasonable demands. I think this is wrong and it is not good for karate.
Maybe, by the term “gods” Mr. Linton may have meant “masters”. Even with this definition, I agree that just being a Japanese sensei should not automatically qualify one to be a master. That person may hold a high dan rank such as 8th or 9th dan and in addition, he may even be a National or World champion in the past. Even with those qualifications, I am afraid, it is still not fully sufficient for becoming a true master.
Then, you would ask “What qualifications does one need to be a master?” To deserve such a title, I believe there must be at least two additional requirements;
Requirement 1: That person must be able to show the mastery of his karate techniques today (not ten years ago or even last year). A nice speech or a mediocre demonstration at a tournament will not do. It must be real techniques that he can convincingly demonstrate that they would work in the streets (this will lead to the second point). To be able to do this, a Japanese (and non-Japanese) sensei must be training every day and in good physical and mental condition.
Requirement 2: The sensei must have the character that is well fitting to the title. A master, at least to me, means a master not only in karate but also in life. A true master must be able to show the humbleness, honesty, patience, diligence and other personal values in addition to courage and fighting spirit. He is not someone you fear but one you respect. Yes, it is a tall order. I do not know what you expect but that is what I expect from a true master. Do you not agree that there are too many unqualified or watered down “masters” and “grand masters” in karate now (both Japanese and non-Japanese)?
Her name is Mahiro Takano who was called a child karate master when she was only 7 years old (photo right). A seven year old child, no matter how good she or he may look, can never be a master. I have written another essay about the subject of “Karate Master”. If you are interested, you can find it in my book, Shotokan Mysteries (Chapter 11: Mystery of Karate Master).
The second point Mr. Linton brought up is street smartness. I also agree with his opinion. If you claim your karate to be budo or martial art, it must be applicable in a street situation. It is unfortunate, however, that many Shotokan practitioners (Japanese and non-Japanese) have never been tested in such a situation. Many falsely believe or dream that they could handle themselves. How can they prove that they really can do it? Regardless, the most important thing in budo or martial art karate is; your karate must work in a real hand to hand combat situation. In a street fight or a self-defense situation, looking pretty in your kata and/or winning a gold medal in a major tournament will not help you. Does this mean we should look to get into a street fight to test our skills? Certainly not. We must honor “Karate ni sente nashi (There is no first attack in karate), but we must have the mental attitude in our dojo training in a way that our karate techniques will work in a street fight or self -defense. Mr. Linton was saying if looking pretty is all that counts then what is the difference between that and sport karate? That question hits the main point of what budo or traditional karate is or must be. I will not elaborate the point here. I just want to state that budo karate and sport karate are totally different. Before one side accuses the other, we must know the differences between them. I think it is very important to do this. Do you really know what kind of karate you are actually practicing? If you spend much of your valuable time in karate training, I believe this is a necessary process that all of us should take.
As I warned you at the beginning of this essay, these points are very controversial. I do not expect everyone to agree with my opinions. I am happy to receive any constructive comments from the readers.
If you are a Shotokan practitioner, I suspect that you have never heard this saying. I suspect in some of the Okinawa styles with their lineage to the Chinese kenpo, may teach about this. In Shaolin Kenpo and Praying Mantis kung fu, they have a Chinese poetry that describe the critical points and its title is Hachi da hachi fuda (八打八不打). This literally means “eight strike and eight non-strike”. Hachi (八) means, most of you already know, eight. Da (打) means to strike. Fu (不) means not and here Fu-da (不打) means non-strike.
It seems simple but what does it really mean? Let me explain more than just the literal translation of this saying.
By “Hachi da” or eight strike they mean the eight kyusho (急所) points of a person where being hit they will lose their fighting spirit or you can limit or stop their fighting capability. By “Hachi fuda” or eight non-strike they mean the eight kyusho points where there is a possibility of death when they are hit strongly, thus the teaching is to avoid striking these points unless you really mean to kill a person. The locations of Hachida and Hachi fuda overlap somewhat but the others are slightly different. The positions of these points are now widely known and studied, but in the past it was a big secret. Even now, however, though you may know the locations, what benefit can you gain if you do not know how to strike and have the particular technique to strike?
In our karate training, many senior practitioners have heard of kyusho (急所) which is translated as vital point or pressure point. It is also called tenketsu (点穴) or pressure points. Though we may not have been taught specifically about kyusho and tenketsu, we almost instinctively know that some of the parts in our body can bring a lot of damage and can be dangerous. In many of the grappling martial arts such as aikido and aikijutsu, they teach kyusho as their techniques are closely connected to those points. In other words, they grab or press the specific points of the body instead of doing it randomly without paying attention to the exact locations.
Some of the readers may say, “I have never heard of Hachi fuda but my teacher taught me some of those kyusho points”. This is great and I am happy to hear this. At the same time, I wonder if their teacher had also taught them about the other points, tenketsu. Those are the points that give pain but do not cause permanent damage. I have written an article on how Master Asai demonstrated his techniques on me. You can find this story in one of my books, Shotokan Mysteries (Chapter 13).
Interestingly, those points are also used in the Asian therapeutic treatments such as acupuncture (針), mokusa (灸), and shiatsu (指圧). So, these points are not only for harming or killing, but they can also be used for healing the body. I wrote an essay about Ki in which I mentioned about these points. The title, “What is Ki?”, can be found in Chapter 7 of Shotokan Transcendence.
Now you may wonder if these points are located at the same or different locations of the body. You may also wonder if there are only eight or sixteen points in our body. You must read on to find out more about these mysterious parts of our body.
First, we need to check how kyusho and tenketsu are described or explained in a general dictionary. We usually go to Wikipedia for such information so let us look into this subject there. According to Wikipedia, “A pressure point derives from the meridian points in Traditional Chinese Medicine, and in the field of martial arts, and refers to an area on the human body that may produce significant pain or other effect when manipulated in a specific manner.”
At the same time, exaggerated accounts of pressure-point fighting appeared in Chinese Wushu fictional novels and in the movies. It eventually became known by the name of Dim Mak, or “Death Touch”, in the popular western culture of the 1960s. It is undisputed that there are sensitive points on the human body where even comparatively weak pressure may induce significant pain or serious injury. At the same time, the association of kyusho with the notions of death is controversial and commercially exaggerated.
Regardless, it is referred to as a place where a life-threatening consequence can happen if it takes a hit. There are approximately 40 locations inside and outside of the body. It is interesting that those spots are fairly consistent with the acupuncture points. It should be noted, in the martial arts, by attacking some of those critical spots one can control or paralyze the opponent though it may not endanger one’s life.
Interestingly, the majority of these vital points or spots are the same as the massage and acupuncture points. However, not all of them coincide in the two arts. It is very important for a martial artist to know both maps of the two different arts; one is for Kappo (活法, life or health art) to cure the illness and the other is for Sappo (殺法, killing or martial art) to harm the enemy.
Now we have to study another Japanese term, tsubo （経穴）. It is an acupuncture term and is called “acupuncture point”, literally meaning a jar or a vase. This is, in short, a spot or a point on the human body, where an acupuncturist would stick his needles in. For any therapist who performs the treatment, such as massage and acupuncture, having the thorough knowledge of the tsubo (spots) is mandatory.
They say the number of these points, certified in the world, is 361 spots. The lines obtained by connecting these pressure points are called “meridians” or keiro (経路). There are believed to be fourteen meridians on our body and they run longitudinally. This is a very interesting subject but it is not directly connected to the death points, so we will not go any further into this subject at this time.
So, let us go a little deeper with the investigation of the “death” points, whether you believe there are such points or not. Speaking in relationship to karate, it is defined as the points where they will cause serious damage including death if an excessive blow is received. In other words, those are the spots where Ikken hissatsu (一拳必殺) becomes possible by applying a strike or a kick. It is interesting to know that in Jujitsu, they claim the number of Kyusho as 140. Out of those, the critical ones that could bring high risk to life is about 50.
Those critical points are categorized in four groups depending on the results from an impact. All the senior karate practitioners and the instructors are advised to know them.
① 痛急所 (Tsu kyusho), pain points = the points where one will experience intense pain.
One example is the point between the thumb and index finger. If it it is pinched it gives great pain and it can be used in submission techniques.
② 麻急所 (Ma kyusho), hemp points = the points where one can be temporarily paralyzed.
③ 当込急所 (Atekomi kyusho), strike in points = this word comes from Atemi (当身 strikes).
These points are aimed to kill or to knock the opponents unconscious. They are located in the chest and abdomen area.
④ 活急所 (Katsu kyusho), active points = these points are used in first aid (active method).
They are found in the back, chest, and the abdomen areas. These points are used completely for the opposite reasons of Atekomi points.
The size of one point is said to be about 8 millimeters in diameter. Thus, realistically speaking, it is quite difficult to know precisely where those spots are located. Consequently, it is also extremely difficult to attack any of those points accurately on an opponent. You will not only need to be very familiar with the locations of the spots but must acquire the specific techniques to deliver the proper attacks. What I recommend to the instructors and the senior practitioners is that we remember the approximate locations of these points.
At the end of this article we must touch upon one more subject. It looks like Funakoshi sensei had studied the kyusho because we find the kyusho chart in his book, Karate-do Kyohan (空手道教範) published in 1935. Nakayama, in his book, Dynamic Karate, also added two pages (302 and 303) If those two masters considered these so important as to show the illustrations of these “vulnerable points” in their books, then why do we seem to ignore them and fail to study them?
I believe there are, at least, two major reasons.
The first reason is the popularity of sport karate. In tournament kumite there are only two targets; jodan and chudan. Generally speaking, in a kumite match, as long as you throw a punch or a kick in the general area of jodan and chudan, you will get a point. Therefore, for those who are focused only on scoring points there is no need for them to learn the specific locations of kyusho as they will not increase their scoring points. This attitude, unfortunately, is spreading to the dojo kumite training. For instance, does your sensei approve if your attack or counter attack to the groin in your ippon kumite? I am sure your sensei will not allow that. How about if you counter attack to the opponents’ eyes with nihon nukite (二本貫手 two finger spear hand) during an ippon kumite training? Is this technique widely accepted in your dojo? A kick in the groin and stabbing in the eyes are very effective techniques but aren’t they (and possibly many others) sort of “banned” or disapproved?
The second reason is more complex and can be controversial. Shotokan is a long distance fighting method unlike Goju ryu and Uechi ryu. In other words, most of the techniques in Shotokan are designed to fight from a distance that is further than an arm reach. In Goju ryu and Uechi ryu they focus on the close distance fighting method including the “sticky hand” or push hand training called kakie (カキエ、掛け手). They also train to harden their body to withstand the impact of the punches and the kicks. They typically stand in sanchin stance (三戦) and the instructor would strike or kick the student’s leg, back, belly, etc. Whereas in Shotokan we do not have this type of training and we keep our training very non-contact all throughout the training. Some of the kyusho points such as groin and eyes do not need validation. However, some of the kyusho and tenketsu points can be very small as described before (as little as 8mm). Thus, to be able to use them effectively, we must know exactly the precise locations by frequent experimentation by hitting or pressing some of those spots. Recently, bunkai training has become more popular which is a good trend, in general. There are some tsukami uke (掴み受け grabbing blocks) and nage waza (投げ技 throwing techniques). This training will provide us a rare opportunity to work on the kyusho and tenketsu points. Unfortunately, however, I have not seen this to be a popular trend.
Now that you have a better understanding of the challenge with these critical points, isn’t it about time that you should begin to study them more closely and possibly incorporate this knowledge in your karate training?
Wiki page on pressure point: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pressure_point
Eight striking points
#1: Eyes and around the area near the eyes
#2: Middle of upper lip below the nose
#3: Ears or a little in front of the ears (near the jaw joints)
#4: Back of elbow
#5: Side of the trunk over the rib cage
#6: Tail bone
八 打 歌 訣: 嵩 山 少 林 拳 法
Eight death points of Shaolin Kung Fu
#2: Throat and neck
#3: Solar plexus
#4: side of the trunk over the rib cage
#5: perineum (the area between the anus and the scrotum or vulva）
#6: Towards the back of the trunk over the kidney
#7: Tail bone
A well-known samurai from the 17th century, Miyamoto Musashi (宮本武蔵 photo right) wrote a famous book called Gorin no sho (五輪書) that consisted of five volumes. This book became very popular recently and I hear it was used as a textbook at several of the major US business schools (Harvard was one of them). It is very interesting to see that the professors in business administration thought that his book was beneficial to the university students who are studying business. The publisher, Bantam even published a translated book with an interesting cover with a subtitle of “The real art of Japanese management”.
I have read this book (in Japanese) many times and found some parts are difficult to understand. Regardless, I learned a lot about bujutsu (martial arts) concepts from it, even though I am not practicing kenjutsu (Japanese sword fencing).
Today I want to share one concept that is challenging to understand and even more difficult to practice, even for the kenjutsu experts. If you have read this book then I am sure you have seen this particular concept written in it. If you had some difficulty in understanding it, I do not blame you. I hope my explanation here will be of some help to you.
In Gorin no sho, there are five volumes or books. They are “The book of Earth 地の巻”, “The book of Water 水の巻”, “The book of Fire 火の巻”, “The book of Wind 風の巻” and lastly “The book of Empty or void 空の巻”. First of all I find it very interesting how he named the volumes with those names. He borrowed the idea of Earth, Water, Fire, Wind and Empty from the Buddhist teachings to convey in each volume of his deep understanding from kenjutsu (he called it heiho 兵法). Though I wish to write something about these symbols in the future, I will focus on the one concept today that I found to be one of the most interesting and important of the concepts. This is found in Chapter 3 in the volume of water (水之巻) that consists of 38 chapters total.
According to Musashi, there are two different methods of looking at an opponent or (opponents). Isn’t this puzzling? When we look at an opponent, most people agree that there is only one method for us. You open your eyes and look. You could look carefully or not as carefully but this is not what he was saying. Musashi said there were completely different methods of looking. He called one method, Kan (觀) and the other Ken (見). Many kenjutsuka (swordsmen) also consider the teaching here as being very challenging. So, we need to study and evaluate each word so that we can understand his teaching.
I will put the concept in Japanese first.
Beneath it, I will attempt to translate with some added explanation.
眼の付け様は、大きに広く付るなり。(Meno tsukeyo ha, ookini hiroku tsukeru nari)
The literal translation of this sentence is as follow; “The setting of the eyes must be large and wide.” This is sort of surprising to me. I was thinking it was better to narrow the eyes a little rather than to open them wide. But he is suggesting we should keep them wide open.
観見の二つあり、観の目つよく、見の目よわく、遠き所を近く見、近き所を遠く見ること、兵法の専なり。(Kan ken no futatsu ari, kan no me tsuyoku, ken no me yowaku, tooki tokoro wo chikaku mi, chikaki tokoro wo tooku miru koto, heiho no sen nari.)
The literal translation, “There are two methods; ‘Kan’ and ‘Ken’. The eye of ‘Kan’ needs to be strong and that of ‘Ken’ needs to be weak. You need to look at the far vision as near and the near vision as far. This is the requirement of bujutsu.”
This is the most important part of this teaching but at the same time, it can be very confusing. Musashi is explaining about two different ways when you look at an opponent. He used two kanji, 観 and 見 to differentiate the two ways of looking. Those two kanji, both, mean “look” or “see”. Each kanji has the Chinese way of pronunciation and the Japanese way. Though the Chinese pronunciation is different, the Japanese sound is the same, “Miru 観る, 見る). So, even for a Japanese person this differentiation between those two kanji is difficult. Typically 観 is used when you are looking at something that is far. For instance, we use this kanji when we go to a stadium to watch a game of baseball or football. Another situation is to go to a park to watch the cherry blossoms in the spring time or the trees on the mountain. On the other hand, 見 is typically used when you are looking at something near you and in a narrow view. For instance, when you say “I look at my hands”, we always use見 and never 観. However, if we are going to investigate or to inspect something, we use 観 even if that something is near (i.e. 観察 observation, 観光 sightseeing).
In English you have different words to view or see. If you say “I see a person” then it is different from “I look at a person”. There are more different verbs too. One is “watch”. You watch TV to see a program so “I see TV” means something completely different. Another one would be “view”. So, all those different words have slightly different meaning even though you are doing some function with your eyes.
So, Musashi is saying that the far vision needs to be strong or intense. We need to view the far sight as though near. On the other hand, the near vision must not be seen so intensely. As they are at a close distance, it is easy for us to be preoccupied and forget the sights of the far. Then, he says we need to view the scene of close distance as if it is far away.
I am pretty sure you can understand the literal meaning of what he wrote. It is another matter to truly understand what Musashi was trying to convey. Even if we did understand the true meaning of what he was saying, being able to do those things would be another matter. It is not like we have a zoom capability so we can see something far. He is saying we have those two capabilities (to see near and far) with our eyes but he is telling us that we need to execute those two functions simultaneously which makes it very challenging if not impossible.
(Teki no tachi wo shiri, isasakamo teki no tachi wo mizuto iukoto, heiho no daiji nari. Kufu arubeshi.)
“One must know the opponent’s sword in advance, thus one does not watch the opponent’s sword. This is a very important point for kenjutsu strategy. We must do our best to master this skill.”
It is true that if one can predict how the opponent will swing the sword, one does not need to watch the sword. However, how can that be possible? From what I can guess, you can do this by developing the “Kan no me” and “Ken no me”.
(Kono metsuke, chiisaki heiho nimo, dainaru heiho nimo onaji koto nari.)
“This viewing method is the same with the small fighting and large fighting situations.”
By small fighting he meant an individual samurai fighting against one or multiple opponents. On the other hand, by large fighting he was talking about a battle and a war strategy.
(Menotama ugokazu shite, ryowaki wo mirukoto kanyo nari.)
“It is critically important that you can see the side views without moving your eyes.”
Now he is talking about a specific technique which is interesting. We need to be able to see with a 180 degree vision without moving our eyes. I think it is possible but it will require some serious training if we wish to be able to do this during our fighting time.
(Kayo no koto, isogashiki toki, niwaka ni wakimae gatashi.)
“This ability (note: to have a 180 degree vision) is quite difficult to have when you are busy (note: fighting time).”
Not surprisingly, he is warning us that this technique is quite difficult when we are fighting for our life. Normally, in a fight for your life situation, your vision narrows and becomes sort of tunnel vision. Thus, Musashi felt the need of telling us about this. He pointed to us that developing this technique requires a lot of training and discipline.
(Kono kakitsuke wo oboe, joju kono metsuke ni narite, nanigoto nimo metsuke no kawarazaru tokoro, yokuyoku ginmi arubeki mono nari.)
“Memorize these statements in this document, develop this vision skill into your daily life, do not change the view method regardless of the situation. You must remind yourself about this deeply.”
I believe this statement above is quite obvious and understandable.
The key statement of this teaching was certainly in the second sentence and I am sure all the readers will agree. Even if we understand what Musashi was trying to tell us, it remains challenging because he did not tell us how to achieve those two methods. We sort of understand the difference between them but how do we apply both? I cannot explain how different they are and how to achieve them, but I think I can give you an analogy. If you were born in the 20th century, you remember those analog cameras. These days, most of us including the senior citizens, like me, depend on our cell phones. The cameras we use now are all digital. Do you remember how difficult it was to focus correctly using an analog camera? A camera on an iPhone is simple and no need to focus so all of us love it. However, I remember that one of my friends who happens to be a semi professional photographer told me once a few years ago that with the digital cameras we were now forgetting how to take the good photos. I told him I did not understand. I disagreed with him by saying that we no longer need to play around and focus. We can take many photos so we can delete the bad ones and keep only the good ones. With an analog camera (excluding the professional use high speed cameras), we can take only one at a time and we did not know how the photos would come out until we had them developed. He agreed on what I told him but he continued to explain where he was coming from. He said to take a professional quality photo, you need to pay attention to two different things in the camera finder. One is, of course, the object or the person who you are taking a photo of. The other is the background. At this time, I told him, “Exactly, this is why we had a lot of problems with the analog cameras. We had to check both the target and the background and we constantly messed up the focus.” He came back and told me this was one of the reasons why the photos taken by a professional photographer always resulted in better looking photos than those taken by the amateurs. Of course, there were other reasons such as the shutter speed, distance, f stops etc.
I remembered my friend’s statement when I read the second sentence of Musashi teaching. Maybe, a professional cameraman could look at the background using the eyes of Kan (観) simultaneously he would look at the target (object or person) with the eyes of Ken (見). All along he would be checking and feeling the light, shade, all the details of what is going on behind and around the target. The professional person can do all those functions simultaneously and click the shutter at the right time. He/she knows exactly when to click the shutter and most of the time, the photos are usually beautiful and exciting. On the other hand, if that was us, the amateur cameramen would not be able to do them right and miss the right moment and the photos will end up, most of the time, as mediocre and not so exciting. The action and the environment of taking a photo are totally different from fighting against an enemy who is trying to kill you. However, I think this analogy does explain the part of having two different kinds of viewing function. What do you think?
Then, how do we accomplish this in martial arts, our karate? I am not an expert in this so I cannot give an answer. However, two words come to mind. One is Zanshin (残心) and the other is Ki (気). As you know zanshin is typically used after you complete your kata. By this, you are supposed to keep your attention to the enemy who is supposedly knocked down by you. This understanding is partially correct and partially incorrect. It is so because we, the karateka, are to keep this attention not only to the fallen enemy but to any possible enemy who are around us and we are to do this all the time and not only after kata or fighting. With the true Zanshin feeling we are to pay attention to 360 degrees around us at all times. So, there is a similar expectation as in the Musashi teaching such as seeing the near and the far at the same time, and to be able to see with a 180 degrees vision. We, the karate practitioners, are expected to develop Ki. Most of us have some idea of what Ki is but it is also a difficult concept for many of us. I have written an article, “What is Ki?” which comes in Part 1 and Part 2. They are included in my third book, Shotokan Trascendence. If you have not read this book, it is available from Amazon Books US and UK.
In short, Ki is an energy form or an entity that is within ourselves. So, we look at or see the things near, or the target, with the physical eyes or Ken (見). For the far things and the things around us that are being covered in 360 degrees we see with the eyes of Kan (観) or our heart or our Ki. In other words, you try to FEEL or see with your heart (Ki) the movements, thoughts and intention of the enemy. This may be a part of Kan. Of course, Kan will expand beyond the enemy you are facing but I think this concept will apply nicely here.
What I wrote above is only my thinking and I am not sure what Musashi would say if he could read this. Despite that, I feel quite confident that the teaching we learn in karate is applicable to that of Musashi.
This is the first teaching I picked up from Gorin no sho. I plan to find other interesting teachings from this valuable book and attempt to apply my interpretation sometime in the future. It will be posted on my blog site so check this site periodically if you are interested in finding the sequence as well as other karate and martial arts related articles.
If you do not have a copy of “A Book of Five Rings”, why not get a copy from Amazon Books? This is a must have book in the library of every serious karateka. I guarantee it is a well worth investment.
Here is the URL:
(This is Part 2. Please read Part 1 first if you have not yet.)
OK so you may wonder why the development of Ki has to come with breathing and particularly deep breathing. First, let’s see if deep breathing is considered as beneficial in the western world. Believe it or not, if you google you will see many related articles and sites.
(Brush painting of “Ki” kanji written by Morihei Ueshiba)
One site is by the motivation and awareness site called One Powerful Word: http://www.onepowerfulword.com/ It lists 18 benefits of deep breathing:
1. Breathing Detoxifies and Releases Toxins
2. Breathing Releases Tension
3. Breathing Relaxes the Mind/Body and Brings Clarity
4. Breathing Relieves Emotional Problems
5. Breathing Relieves Pain.
6. Breathing Massages Your Organs
7. Breathing Increases Muscle
8. Breathing Strengthens the Immune System
9. Breathing Improves Posture
10. Breathing Improves Quality of the Blood
11. Breathing Increases Digestion and
12. Breathing Improves the Nervous System
13. Breathing Strengthen the Lungs.
14. Proper breathing makes the Heart Stronger.
15. Proper Breathing assists in Weight Control.
16. Breathing Boosts Energy levels and Improves Stamina
17. Breathing Improves Cellular Regeneration
18. Breathing Elevates Moods
Enough benefits? For the full article access here:
It is true that the editor of this site is not a medical person. Then let’s check what the medical experts say about deep breathing. I am posting only one of them here but you can check the internet and find many other similar sites. The site I am referring to is called “Women to women”; Changing women’s health – naturally by Marcelle Pick, OB/GYN NP. In one page she wrote, “In a 2005 review and analysis of several studies, Richard Brown, MD and Patricia Gerbarg, MD reported that yogic deep-breathing techniques were extremely effective in handling depression, anxiety, and stress-related disorders. These techniques can serve as an excellent adjunct to conventional medical treatment — or in some cases as a suitable substitute — in treating myriad psychological disorders, as well as eating disorders and obesity.”
If you are interested you can read the entire article here:
So, the modern medical society also acknowledges the benefits of deep breathing. It is a shame that it is not popular among the average people including the athletes. It is more shame that not many karate instructors emphasize the importance of deep breathing and incorporate it in their syllabus.Anyway, the Asian people knew these benefits for centuries and incorporated deep breathing in different training methods. We believe that the Ki energy must be activated and circulated throughout our body to produce the positive results and this is why the deep breathing method was used to energize the circulation. It is like when you boil the water in a tea kettle. As you heat the kettle from the bottom the water circulates up then it rotates and comes down. You can have that image with your Ki in your body. Breathing does two things. One is to assist the Ki energy to circulate (internal). The other is to give the energy source (air) to the remote parts of your body (external). The latter is done by the blood circulation but deep breathing will help it by increasing the intake of oxygen and the discharge of carbon dioxide.
OK then you would wonder where the Ki energy would travel in our body. The Chinese experts developed a meridian chart called Keiraku (経絡) to show the exact paths and the system (see the illustration). There is much debate among the western medical personnel about the existence of such paths or routes because no physical organs are visible or detectable while the circulatory system and nervous system are. The Keiraku chart was developed by the physical experiences by the experts of acupuncture and the moxa over thousands of years.
The smooth flowing of your Ki is the key to your health and the life strength. The slow and deep breathing that is coordinated with the slow physical movement will aid and promote the circulation. I repeat that this is the reason why I have mentioned that Tai Chi chuan is one of the best methods out of all the martial arts systems (provided that you agree to include it into this category) to develop your Ki. Then you will naturally want to know about karate. Yes, it is about time to talk about our karate training but what do you think? Unfortunately, the training syllabus includes specific breathing exercise or special training for breathing only at a few Shotokan dojo. If so, then, you would think of the training that you do with your kata. Sadly again, none of the kata is taught with proper instruction pertaining to breathing and few instructors know how to harmonize breathing with the kata movements. The only visible breathing kata we have in Shotokan, namely Hangetsu, has lost its breathing method teaching for many years. Only Kanazawa sensei and I are the ones who do such teaching. n addition, this kata not only almost lost its breathing method but also the most important key point of Hangetsu dachi. I wrote about this in Shotokan Myths (Hangetsu chapter) so the readers may remember. I plan to put an instructional video of Hangetsu at Karate Coaching video site (www.karatecoaching.com) where I will explain how it should be done including a few different breathing methods.
You are familiar with Ki-ai (気合) which you do frequently in your training. It literally means to gather or collect Ki. Doesn’t this help develop Ki? How ironic it can be! The consistent or an excessive use of ki-ai, believe it or not, prevents Ki from flowing. It may be a shocking statement but it is true. A loud ki-ai means a loss of energy and it disrupts the flow of Ki as your body needs to tense. It is like a loud sound when a bomb explodes. Such sound does not aid the power but the energy is wasted as it is an escaped energy. So, if a sound comes out from a powerful technique then that is ok (like a loud sound from a dynamite explosion), but making loud ki-ai for its own sake, you are simply wasting your energy. Maybe it is ok for the children’s class so that they can learn the spirit or let their energy out as they are full of energy. I wrote this also in Shotokan Myths (Ki-ai chapter) that there was no ki-ai in ancient kata and during the training in Okinawa prior to 20th century. Even Funakoshi did not emphasize ki-ai anddoing one or two ki-ai in kata was optional (you may want to re-read Karatedo Kyohan). It all changed when kata became a tournament event where some strict rules are needed to judge. Is all ki-ai bad? No, as I said earlier, it is all right if it is done correctly. It can bring an extraordinary power to a technique and I do not mean by a magical power. It is difficult to explain with the words but a correct ki-ai will act as a connecting point that brings all the muscle energy together harmoniously from the different parts of the body. This is why the tension of the body or kime must be one hundredth or even thousandth of a second. This is the true kime and it can be seen in Hakkei (発剄) which is translated only as explosive power which is supposed to be a secret or an ultimate technique of kung fu training. This is the energy used in one inch or zero inch punch. You can see my demonstration of one inch punch in this Youtube video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gl0vq9nOl3Q
Then, how about ibuki (息吹き) breathing used in Goju-ryu and other Okinawan styles (photo above)? I have only a limited experience with Goju-ryu training so I am not an expert in this style so I welcome inputs from Goju experts. My understanding is that there are two parts to the objectives of ibuki breathing. One is used in sanchin kata which aims to coordinate body movements with the breathing. The concept is similar to Tai Chi but there is a big difference that in Tai chi the idea is to relax the muscles but in Goju a practitioner learns how to tense his body. So the blocking and punching arms in Sanchin (三戦) kata move slowly but there seems to be too much tension throughout the body that would slow the circulation of the Ki in your body. The purpose of this kata and original Hangetsu was not to aid to the circulation but maybe only to strengthen the local Ki. The other training of ibuki breathing is done while a practitioner is standing still while doing heavy ibuki breathing (fast inhaling and slow and forced exhaling). The instructor will check the practitioner’s tension by punching and kicking him pretty hard. The idea I understand is that Goju practitioner will turn the body to withstand the hits and kicks of an opponent. Obviously this concept comes from a close distance fighting method and based on the situation of fist to fist only fight.
In Okinawa all weapons (swords, knives, etc.) were banned for hundreds of years so this concept could be considered. Shurite including Shorin-ryu and Shotokan was based on a long distance fighting method which means fighting against an opponent with a weapon. This is one of the reasons why Funakoshi did not adopt ibuki breathing training and de-emphasized in Hangetsu kata (半月形). The other reason was the way it is being practiced; upper body naked. Funakoshi knew that this does not go with the Japanese culture too well as only the manual labors would take their top off. He wanted to introduce karate to Japan as the martial arts of samurai or gentleman. One great benefit of ibuki breathing, however, is its training of diaphragm. During ibuki you have to pay much attention to your diaphragm and its actions. You will learn how to “push down” and “pull up” the diaphragm while you control and manage the breathing. However, this exercise is also being practiced in Yoga. I like their exercise better as it is done with much less tension. In addition, its training is incorporated with moving the internal organs (up and down or in a circular direction) along with the deep breathing. This exercise is excellent for circulating your Ki and it will help you with your health. I recommend this exercise strongly and I hope the readers will try it.
Back to kime. The extended kime or tension of the muscles is not good for the Ki flow and you can about this in Kime chapter of Shotokan Myths (Second Edition, cover photo right). To develop the Ki flow in your karate training you need to learn how to relax more while you are training. If you enjoy the tensions in your training then I recommend that you will have a separate session of breathing exercise. I explained how to do the long and deep breathing in my previous blog. There are other ways to develop Ki and I will include them in my longer version of the subject.
Now that you know how to exercise a long and deep breathing method, let me conclude this article with the highest level of benefits that can come from the strong Ki and the healthy Ki flow developed by deep breathing exercises.
You will be able to control your heart beat and blood pressure. You will have a stronger immune system. What do these mean? The result is that you will have a very healthy life. Funakoshi boasted when he was in his 70’s and early 80’s that he never got sick. He credited to his karate training which I endorse. He lived till 88 years old which was an amazing longevity in that era. He even went through the war time in Tokyo where the food was scarce and sanitation was extremely poor in 1940’s. I agree with Master Funakoshi and I will write a separate article on how karate training can produce the good health. The more I practice karate I realize how amazingly human being is createdand that our potential is almost unlimited. So, wouldn’t you be happy if you simply do not get sick even when you are in your 70’s and 80’s?You can achieve that health with deep breathing and karate training.
You will also be able to control your brain waves at your will and emotional states much better than the non-practiced people. Under the heavy stress or emergency situation don’t you want to have an ability to keep calm and collected? You can do this if you can keep your brain waves at relaxed mode? By having strong Ki you will not be depressed or influenced less by the bad or sad news or incidents. This will certainly enable you to have a happier life.
Your mental alertness will improve with better breathing and stronger Ki. What does this mean? You will be able to avoid the accidents while you walk, run, ride a bike, drive and whatever the activities you may have. Out of all the accidents you may encounter an automobile accident can be the most serious one which you want to avoid the most. I have already written an article specifically on this subject and it is also available in my third book, Shotokan Transcendence. The title of the article is Jidosha Dojo (Automobile Dojo), how to practice karate while you are driving your car. I thin the concept of this training is unique and new. I am sure you will enjoy reading it.
I hope I covered everything I wanted with Ki and its relationship to deep breathing. In Shotokan Transcendence, along with “What is Ki?” and “Jidosha dojo” I have a chapter on how you can increase your Ki by doing Ki exchange with the trees. Please do not be skeptical. The sources of Ki are available all around you and if you try you will find that it is easy to increase your Ki.
I hope you will get yourself a copy of my third book, Shotokan Transcendence (cover photo right).
It is available at Amazon Books:
After reading it, would you kindly put your book review for the future readers?
The kanji for tatsujin consists of two letters; 達 and 人. Let’s look at the meaning of each letter. Tatsu (達) means to reach or achieve. Jin (人) means a person. Together, in general this represents a Japanese concept of a fully self-actualized human being. It is a higher state of consciousness, that is uninhibited by the weaknesses in our personality that make us inherently human. It is a mind that is free from the desires of the ego, and able to see life through the “Eyes and Mind of God”.
Tatsujin, more frequently, refers to a person who has achieved an extremely high level of a certain skill. It is typically associated with the martial arts and other Japanese cultural activities with Do (道) such as sado (茶道 tea ceremony), kado (華道 flower arrangement) and shodo (書道 a form of calligraphy). It also includes some crafts (carpentry, gardening, scissor work, etc.), sports, crafts, work skills such as cooking and hobbies like fishing, and even in some games (explained towards the end of this article). If one is a real expert in any of these arts or crafts, we call him or her a tatsujin.
How can one reach a Tatsujin level in martial arts?
Of course, to reach a tatsujin level in any of the martial arts, the practitioners must love their art and practice long hours for many years. At the same time, we tend to look at the physical part alone because it is obvious and visible. We must not forget the other important requirement. Here is an extremely difficult requirement; a tatsujin must demonstrate heijoshin (平常心) or peaceful mind at all times. Heijoshin is a popular word in martial arts but is also a difficult term to understand, therefore, it is much more difficult to achieve it.
Let’s look at heijoshin closer. There are two parts in Kanji; “Heijo 平常” and “shin 心”. Heijo means ordinary, usual or normal. Shin, as you may already know, means “mind” or “heart”. The first kanji “heijo” can be broken into two kanji; “hei 平” and “jo常”. “hei” means “flat” and “jo ” means “always” or “constant”. So, together it means the state of one’s mind that is flat or peaceful at all times.
What does it mean? Shin or kokoro (mind) can be disturbed often. Often, you get surprised or you become afraid. Sometimes, you may panic and lose your concentration. Whenever your mind is disturbed like that, your mind is not peaceful, and not flat. Thus, heijoshin means “in any situation, one must keep the state of one’s mind as flat or as peaceful as possible so that one can think clearly and make the correct and appropriate decisions”.
As you can easily imagine, it is extremely difficult to keep the mind peaceful or flat all the time, thus if an expert can demonstrate that ability then he or she is a tatsujin.
In martial arts, I believe there is one more requirement. A tatsujin’s skill level must not deteriorate or decline as one gets older. In other words, he or she must be able to maintain and even improve his physical and mental skill level even when he/she gets into the age of the 70’s or 80’s. The good examples are Sagawa Yukiyoshi (佐川幸義 1902 – 1998 photo above) of Daito ryu Aiki jutsu and Uehara Seikichi (上原清吉 1904 – 2004 photo right) of Motobu ryu Okinawa karate. Sagawa lived to be 96 years old and Uehara got to be 100. It is known that both of them trained almost till their last day and their martial art skills were kept incredibly high. These masters did not show any decline of their skill level due to their age. I also consider Asai Tetsuhiko (浅井哲彦 photo below) to have been another karate tatsujin. Though he died when he was only 71 years old, his karate in his late sixties seemed to be better than when he was in his fifties. In other words his karate was advancing as he got older. He practiced two to three hours every morning to improve and his karate seemed to be at a perfect level. If he did not fall to cancer in 2006, Asai’s karate might have improved to an even higher level.
We have another term to describe a person of extraordinary expert skills, meijin (名人). Then what is meijin and what is the difference between meijin and tatsujin?
Meijin (名人), literally translated, means “Well known person”. Its original meaning is “master” or “expert” or “virtuoso” of any field. Meijin is also a title that can be found in martial arts such as kenjtsu, kyudo, judo and karate. This title is used in the other arts as well, including cooking, painting and interestingly, the Japanese games such as Go (碁 or Igo 囲碁), Shogi (将棋 Japanese chess) or Mahjong (麻雀). Some claim that tatsuji is above meijin and the other claim the opposite. One thing that is clear is that meijin typically describes an expert who is widely known or famous. Other than this difference, I do not consider it important to determine which title is higher. What is most important, as far as I am concerned, is that we train daily and make an earnest effort to reach to tatsujin level. Though I may never reach that level in my life time but at least I am making the honest effort by training daily. How about you?
Probably the most famous karate person who is 10th dan is Higaonna Morio (東恩納 盛男) sensei of Goju ryu. I am aware that there are several other Okinawan karate styles that grant this rank, though I will not list their names as this is not the main purpose of this subject.
As for Shotokan, we did not have the rank of 10th dan for a long time. Even though Master Funakoshi Gichin (船越義珍 photo left) inducted the dan system from Judo in 1924, it is interesting to note that he never claimed any rank for himself. Initially, the highest rank was 5th dan or Godan, then in the middle of the 20th century the system expanded to 10th dan, Judan. In fact, the first chief instructor of the JKA, Nakayama Masatoshi (中山正敏 photo right) was the first person who received a 9th dan while he was still alive. He received a tenth dan posthumously in 1987. In 2001 Kanazawa Hirokazu (金澤弘和 photo below left) of SKIF (headquarters in Tokyo) became the first living Shotokan person who claimed 10th dan. A few years later in 2007, after splitting from the JKA, the chairman of ISKF (Philadelphia USA), Okazaki Teruyuki (岡崎照幸 photo below right) began to claim 10th dan. I do not know exactly when but Ken Funakoshi of Funakoshi Shotokan (California USA) also began to claim the highest rank recently. I do not know if there are any other Shotokan sensei who are bold (?) enough to claim the rank. Not too many I hope.
Let’s look at the dan ranking system in general. Surprisingly, the dan ranking system is found not only in the martial arts but also in other sports and games such as Shogi (将棋 Japanese chess) and Go (碁) or Igo (囲碁). It is interesting that the dan ranks are also given in the art of Abacus (soroban算盤) and Shodo (書道 brush writing art).
How are the high dan ranks such as 9th and 10th being granted in the martial arts?
Interestingly, the highest dan ranks are sometimes reserved for the founder or leaders of a style and only high-ranking students can be promoted to them. For an example, in judo, seven living people have a tenth dan currently. On the other hand, in modern Kendo, the dan system was recently changed when they abolished the 9th and 10th dan. Thus, 8th dan is the highest attainable rank in kendo. Unlike Judo, all dan promotion within the IKF (International Kendo Federation) and its member countries is by examination.
How about in karate?
Each organization seems to have different systems. I know the JKA and JKS have granted 10th dan to their chief instructors posthumously and they have not, as far as I know, granted one to a living person. As I have mentioned above, the SKIF and ISKF have decided to grant the highest rank to their chief instructors while they are still alive.
The JKF（全空連 Japan Karatedo Federation）consists of six major karate organizations including the JKA (though they were expelled in 2014 but they were re-admitted in March of this year). This group of organizations is the largest karate entity in Japan. They require an examination up to 8 dan. For 9th and 10th dan it is decided by the board of directors after receiving a recommendation from an organization. As far as I know JKF does not have any 9th and 10th dan karateka yet.
As the number of the karate practitioners has recently increased significantly, we have begun to see the “inflation” of the dan ranking, particularly among the non-Japanese organizations. We find too many “masters” and “grand masters”. There seems to be too many sensei with the high ranks of 8th, 9th and even 10th dan these days. Not surprisingly, a few have achieved even a higher rank such as 11th dan (a great grand master, Gilberto Pauciullo photo left). There seems to be no end to one’s ego but I feel strongly that this trend must be stopped. Shouldn’t we, the Shotokan practitioners, agree that we will not honor this trend and the dishonorable claim of the high ranks higher than 10th dan?
Let’s get back to the Shotokan ranking system. So, what does 10th dan mean to us?
The majority of the organizations are granting the highest rank as an honorary rank for being the head of a karate organization or for having left a major contribution to the development of karate. In this case, I can understand why Kanazawa sensei and Okazaki sensei could receive their tenth dan.
On the other hand, I clearly remember what the late Master Asai Tetsuhiko (浅井哲彦 photo right) told me that made a big impression on me. After Kanazawa sensei received his tenth dan, I had a chance to ask Asai sensei about it. It was probably in 2002 or 2003 and Asai sensei had been 9th dan for many years. As far as I was concerned, he was the best karateka alive then and even now I think of him as the best. So I was curious as to when he would go for the highest rank so I asked him exactly that. This is exactly what he replied, “I train every morning because I am not perfect yet. Every morning I find something new and a way to improve myself. I will become tenth dan only when my karate becomes perfect. I think they have to wait till I die.” Indeed, this was exactly what happened. He received his tenth dan after his passing in 2006 (photo left shows the tenth dan diploma issued by JKS).
I am not criticizing those sensei who claim the tenth dan while alive. I am sure they deserve this special consideration and the honor for what they have accomplished and their contributions. At the same time, I prefer to regard tenth dan as the mark of perfection in karate. At least to me, 10th dan is a rank that no living human can achieve thus it should be granted only posthumously. By doing this, I think this rank of 10th dan will have the true meaning of the highest rank or an unreachable goal.
This is my belief but what do you think?
In my third book, Shotokan Transcendence (photo below), I wrote a chapter containing Funakoshi’s Niju kun (Twenty Principles 船越二十訓). These principles have been translated by many people but I decided to provide my own translation as I had not found any that satisfied me. If you have not read my book, please purchase one from Amazon US (www.amazon.com) or Amazon UK (www.amazon.co.uk).
In that chapter I covered in-depth the meaning of each of the twenty kuns. However, today I want to pick out one kun in particular to discuss further. The particular kun is the twelfth one (訓第１２番).
- 勝つ考えは持つな: 負けぬ考えは必要
Katsu kangae wa motsuna; makenu kangae wa hitsuyo
“Do not think of winning. Think, rather, of not losing.”
The reason why I decided to further discuss this kun is because of the experience I had during my recent visit to Japan (Jan and Feb 2016). I wish to explain this important kun in depth through a story of an event that took place in Japan. It is rather a long story but after reading it you will better understand what this kun really means.
OK let us start. On a freezing day in February of 2016, I visited the third largest city in Japan to exchange a very important agreement memorandum with a certain Japanese karate organization. The signing and the ceremony went well and we had a small party afterwards. We had a very nice sea food dinner and a glass of beer to kanpai (to celebrate the agreement) even though I do not drink beer. The party went well and as usual we had discussions of karate which I always enjoy very much. We started our discussion with a few subjects that were related to karate techniques.
After a period of time one sensei from northern Japan who was there as a special guest asked me how I felt about the possibility of karate being included in the Olympic Games. My answer was clear that I was totally against the inclusion of karate. He expressed that he was in favor of it and asked why I was against this possibility. I explained that the main reason for my opposition is the fear that the budo spirit would be ignored and be forgotten once it is included in the Olympics. This sensei respectfully disagreed and said that he trained his young students not only with the disciplines and hard training but also with etiquette and courtesy. He said proudly that his students would be a good example of budo karate to show the rest of the world. I congratulated him for his teaching. I also told him that I respected him for running his dojo that way. Now I know that he teaches his students how to be courteous and to demonstrate good etiquette. The students’ parents, without being asked, bring some brooms and trash bags when they accompany their children to a tournament. With this equipment they are prepared to clean up the tournament site before they leave, though this action is totally voluntary and nothing is expected by him or by the tournament management. For this reason, I sincerely hope his team will have an opportunity to show their behavior when and if karate is included in the Olympics in 2020.
Although I respect him very much and understood what he was saying, I still had to disagree with him. I could foresee what karate would become from watching the current karate tournament competitors’ behavior. This sensei asked me why I was against so strongly to the idea of being in the Olympic Games. This is the explanation I gave to him.
The trend of the recent tournaments is that the ultimate aim or goal has become winning. I fear that this trend will become even more significant once karate is included in the Olympics. I told him that this is the reason why I say karate will lose the budo spirit. This sensei said, “I am sorry but I do not understand.” So, I asked him, “Sensei O. (I refrain from revealing his real name to keep his privacy) do you know the twelfth kun from Funakoshi Nijukun?” He did not know it so I told him the kun that is written at the beginning of this article: Katsu kangae wa motsuna; makenu kangae wa hitsuyo
“Do not think of winning. Think, rather, of not losing.”
He said, “Frankly, this kun is very confusing to me. I do not see the difference between ‘thinking of winning’ and ‘thinking of not losing’. Do you?” I suspect this is what most of the readers also think. So, I answered him, “Yes I do know” and explained that there is a great difference between these two attitudes or desires. Here is my explanation.
If winning is your ultimate goal in a match, one tends to do anything to accomplish that end. I am not saying to win itself is wrong or bad but I am referring to the process of winning. In other words, even if an action is not too honest or is un-budo like one chooses to take it in order to win. As an example, imagine that one competitor is leading the match with one point and he has only 10 or 15 seconds left in the match. What would this competitor do? He will most likely stay back and will not take a chance of losing on a score by the opponent. This means he will stop fighting even if he would not obviously run away but he would maintain a safe distance from the opponent. I asked that sensei if he was the coach of this competitor would he encourage the competitor to stay back or to fight more aggressively. He answered, “If the rule allows the competitor to be dormant or not aggressive then he can use this rule to his advantage. So, I will coach the competitor to stay back and secure the win. There is nothing wrong with this.” His reply was exactly what I expected. So, I continued. “Sensei O. let’s change the situation to a cashier in a store.” He said OK so I asked him a silly question. “Do you allow your student or your child to steal money from a store?” He replied quickly, “Of course, not!” I expected this reply too. So, I continued. “Imagine that there is a store rule that store management will not press charges or conduct an investigation when the cash register is short only by one penny.” “If this is the case, would you allow or permit your student or your child to steal a penny?” He emphatically said, “Definitely not! Taking even a penny is still stealing!” I told him that I agreed and it was exactly my point. I asked why would he let his student or child to do an un-budo like action in a tournament only because a rule allows it? What is the difference between this action and stealing a penny? That sensei said, “Well, I understand your point from your analogy. Then, what about ‘trying not to lose’? Isn’t it the same? If you do not want to lose, then wouldn’t you become less aggressive, in that particular situation?”
This is the challenging point and many people misunderstand this kun. My answer is as follow; “No, I do not think that is what Master Funakoshi wanted to tell us.” My understanding of its meaning is not to make winning as the ultimate goal in a tournament. This means that karate practitioners must not put winning in front of the principle of karatedo. Therefore, a karate practitioner must not cheat nor act dishonestly in order to win. In other words, a competitor in the earlier situation must continue fighting with the same fighting spirit during the final ten seconds. He will be careful not to let his opponent score against him but certainly he will not run around to waste time or run away from the opponent.” I told him that in budo we (particularly the Japanese samurai) seek the beauty of losing clean or with honor rather than a dirty or dishonest win. I concluded that this kind of attitude or the way of thinking will not be developed or cherished by Olympic competitors and their coaches. That sensei agreed and he uttered weakly, “You are right, sensei Yokota, but that is a big challenge. I am a coach and I am not sure if I can guide my students so that they seek for clean lose and forget winning.”
An honorable lose is much better than a dishonest winning. But once karate becomes an Olympic event, I doubt very much that this spirit will be honored and executed by most of the competitors.
Therefore, as a conclusion I hope that Sensei O will see the educational value in Funakoshi Niju kun, particularly of the 12th kun. Thus, he will add the true budo value when he teaches his young students. He is still in favor of having karate in the Olympics. So I sincerely hope that his team will be the model for the world and show the true karatedo spirit and actions when his students compete in the Olympics.
What are Jujutsu, Judo, Aikido, and Brazilian jiujitsu? 柔術、柔道、合気道、ブラジリアン柔術とは Part 4: Brazilian jiujitsu
Part 4: Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ)
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) is a combat sport and a self-defense method that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting. They purposely spell their art as JIU-JITSU to separate it from its origin of Japanese jujutsu (柔術 soft technique). Because I have visited Brazil many times I have become aware of Brazilian jiu-jitsu and its history. I discovered who brought the art to Brazil. Brazilian jiu-jitsu was formed from Kodokan judo ground fighting fundamentals that were taught mainly by Mitsuyo Maeda ((前田 光世, 7 dan judo, a.k.a. Conde Koma, 1878 – 1941, photo right) and also the best judoka Kodokan ever produced, Masahiko Kimura (木村政彦 1917 -1993, photo below). Though Kimura is truly famous in Japan and also an icon in the judo world, Maeda is surprisingly not very well known in Japan. Brazilian jiu-jitsu eventually came to be its own art through the experiments, practices, and adaptation of judo through Carlos and Hélio Gracie as well as other instructors who were students of Maeda.
BJJ promotes the concept that a smaller, weaker person can successfully defend against a bigger, stronger assailant by using proper techniques, leverage, and most notably, taking the fight to the ground, and then applying kansetsu waza (joint locks) and shime waza (chokeholds) to defeat the opponent. BJJ training can be used for sport grappling tournaments (with and without judo uniforms) and MMA competition or self-defense. Sparring or “rolling” and free drilling play a major role in training, and a premium is placed on performance, especially in competition, in relation to progress and ascension through its ranking system. Since its inception in 1882, its parent art of judo was separated from older systems of Japanese jujutsu by an important difference that was passed on to Brazilian jiu-jitsu: it is not solely a martial art, it is also a sport; a method for promoting physical fitness and building character in young people; and, ultimately, a way of life.
Geo Omori opened the first jujutsu / judo school in Brazil in 1909. He would go on to teach a number of individuals including Luiz Franca. Later, Mitsuyo Maeda who was one of five of the Kodokan’s top groundwork (newaza) experts that judo’s founder Kano sent overseas to demonstrate and spread his art to the world. Maeda had trained first in sumo (Japanese wrestling) as a teenager, and after the interest generated by stories about the success of Kodokan Judo (講道館柔道) at contests with other jujutsu schools that were occurring at the time, became a student of Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎). Maeda left Japan in 1904 and visited a number of countries giving judo demonstrations and accepting challenges from wrestlers, boxers and other fighters and various other martial artists before eventually arriving in Brazil on November 14, 1914.
Gastão Gracie was a business partner of the American Circus in Belem. In 1916, the Italian Argentine circus Queirolo Brothers staged shows there and presented Conde Koma. In 1917 Carlos Gracie, the eldest son of Gastão Gracie, watched a demonstration by Conde Koma and decided to learn judo. He accepted Carlos as a student and Carlos trained for a few years, eventually passing his knowledge on to his brothers. Helio Gracie (photo right), supposedly, further developed Gracie Jiu Jitsu as a softer, pragmatic adaptation from judo that focused on ground fighting. This was because he was unable to perform many judo moves that required direct opposition to an opponent’s strength.
Although the Gracie family is typically synonymous with BJJ, another prominent lineage started from Maeda via another Brazilian disciple, Luiz Franca. This lineage had been represented particularly by Oswaldo Fadda, who was famous for the influential use of foot-locks and the lineage survives with the teams such as the Grappling Fight Team.
When Maeda left Japan, judo was still often referred to as “Kano ju-jutsu”, or, even more generically, simply as jujutsu. Higashi, the co-author of “Kano Jiu-Jitsu” wrote in the foreword: “Some confusion has arisen over the employment of the term ‘jiudo’. To make the matter clear I will state that jiudo is the term selected by Professor Kano as describing his system more accurately than jiu-jitsu does. Professor Kano is one of the leading educators of Japan, and it is natural that he should cast about for the technical word that would most accurately describe his system. But the Japanese people generally still cling to the more popular nomenclature and call it jiu-jitsu.”
Outside Japan, however, this distinction was noted even less. Thus, when Maeda and Satake arrived in Brazil in 1914, every newspaper announced their art as being “jiu-jitsu” despite both men being Kodokan judoka.
It was not until 1925 that the Japanese government itself officially mandated that the correct name for the martial art taught in the Japanese public schools should be “judo” rather than “jujutsu”. In Brazil, the art is still called “jiu-jitsu”. When the Gracie boys went to the United States to spread their art, they used the terms “Brazilian jiu-jitsu” and “Gracie Jiu-Jitsu” to differentiate it from the already present styles using similar-sounding names. In a 1994 interview with Yoshinori Nishi, Hélio Gracie said, that he didn’t even know the word judo itself, until the sport came to Brazil in the 1950s, because he heard that Mitsuyo Maeda called his style “jiu-jitsu”.
In 1951, a famous match took place in Brazil between Masahiko Kimura and Helio Gracie that left a big impact to Helio and the formation of BJJ. Right after the World War II ended, Kimura traveled to Brazil along with Yukio Kato, who had accepted a challenge match with Helio Gracie. The rules for the match were set by Gracie, the match could only end by submission or loss of consciousness, ippons and pins would not be scored. Kato and Helio were approximately the same size and weight and were stalemated until Kato was able to throw Helio. Kato began working for a choke, but Helio was able to get back to his guard and lock on a simple cross choke, which left Kato unconscious.
Helio then issued a challenge to Kimura, which was accepted. Unlike Kato, Kimura was much larger than Helio, but that did not stop the Brazilian fans from anticipating victory. Kimura and Helio met in front of a crowd of 20,000 and Gracie’s supports brought a coffin to the match, meant for Kimura once their man was done with him. The outcome however would not be to the crowd’s liking. While Kimura was able to take Gracie down at will and gain position on him, he struggled to submit the smaller man. Kimura attempted a variety of submissions but Helio escaped time after time. Finally Kimura was able to lock his favorite finishing technique, the reverse ude-garami shoulder lock. This time there was no escape for Gracie and when he refused to tap Kimura broke his arm. Even then Helio refused to give in and it was his instructor and older brother, Carlos Gracie, who threw in the towel. Kimura was impressed with the skill of the Brazilian and awarded him a 6th dan black belt in Judo. To honor the Japanese Judoka’s victory the Gracie family would, from this point on, refer to the reverse ude-garami as “the Kimura lock”.
Royce Gracie (1966 – present, photo right) made BJJ famous in 1993 when he entered the first UFC 1 (held in Denver Colorado in November) and won despite he was one of the lightest contestants. He won the first place of this event in three years. At the interview after his victory Royce said that his older brother, Rickson (photo below) was much tougher than him. So, Rickson Gracie (1959 – present, the 3rd son of Helio) was invited to Japan to fight many of the professional wrestlers and MMA fighters such as Funaki (船木 誠勝), Nakai (中井 祐樹) and Takada (髙田 延彦). He fought against them in the 90’s and won in all the matches until he retired in 2000 after winning a match against Funaki. Out of all Gracie family members, Rickson is probably the most well known in Japan.
Now the art of BJJ is sometimes referred to as Gracie Jiu-Jitsu (GJJ), trademarked by Rorion Gracie, but after a legal dispute with his cousin Carley Gracie, his trademark to the name was invalidated. Other members of the Gracie family often call their style by personalized names, such as Charles Gracie Jiu-Jitsu or Renzo Gracie Jiu-Jitsu, and similarly, the Machado family call their style Machado Jiu-Jitsu (MJJ). While each style and its instructors have their own unique aspects, they are all basic variations of Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Today there are four major branches of BJJ from Brazil: Gracie Humaita, Gracie Barra, Carlson Gracie Jiu-Jitsu and Alliance Jiu Jitsu. Each branch can trace its roots back to Maea, Conde Koma via the Gracie family. More recently, the name “jitz” for the art has been gaining recognition as a casual layman’s term, especially in the US.
Since judo was introduced to Brazil there have been changes in the rules of sport judo, some to enhance it as a spectator sport, and some for improved safety. Several of these rule changes have greatly de-emphasized the groundwork aspects of judo, and others have reduced the range of joint locks allowed and when they can be applied. Brazilian jiu-jitsu did not follow these changes to the judo rules (and there is no evidence that some of the rules were ever used, such as the win by pin/osaekomi or by throw), and this divergence has given it a distinct identity as a grappling art, while still being recognizably related to judo. Other factors that have contributed towards the stylistic divergence of BJJ from sport judo include the Gracies’ desire to create a national martial art, the influence of Brazilian culture, and the Gracies’ emphasis on full-contact fighting. Spinal locks and cervical locks are completely forbidden from GJJ, amateur MMA, the multiple forms of GJJ, Judo, and other martial arts. This is due to its illegal nature and express purpose of causing serious, irrevocable bodily injury, paralysis, and death.
BJJ permits all the techniques that judo allows to take the fight to the ground. These include judo’s scoring throws as well as judo’s non-scoring techniques that it refers to as “skillful take-downs” (such as the flying arm bar). BJJ also allows any and all take-downs from wrestling, sambo, or any other grappling arts including direct attempts to take down by touching the legs. BJJ also differs from judo in that it also allows a competitor to drag his opponent to the ground, and even to drop to the ground himself provided he has first taken a grip. Early Kodokan judo was similarly open in its rules (even permitting an athlete to simply sit on the mat at the beginning of a match), but has since become increasingly restrictive in comparison. BJJ has also become more sports oriented and has eliminated techniques such as picking up an opponent from the guard position and throwing him. The guard position is described as a grappling position where one person has their back to the ground while attempting to control their opponent by using their legs.
While there are numerous local and regional tournaments administered regularly by private individuals and academies, there are 2 major entities the Sport Jiu Jitsu International Federation (SJJIF), a nonprofit organization and International Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Federation (IBJJF), a profit organization that hosts a number of major tournaments. These include the Pan American Championship, and European Championship. California, New York and Texas are the three more popular states where you can compete frequently in tournaments. Other promotions such as American Grappling Federation (AGF), North American BJJ Federation (NABJJF), and North American Grappling Association (NAGA) host nationwide tournaments, but visit these three states multiple times within a tournament season.
Another tournament to spring from the founding Gracie lineage is the Gracie Nationals or Gracie Worlds. Started by Rose Gracie, daughter of another famous Brazilian jiu-jitsu practitioner, Rorion Gracie, founded in 2007. In 2012, the Gracie Worlds introduced a new submission-only format, removing subjective judging opinions and what many see as an outdated scoring system. Rose spoke about this change when she said, “Today’s tournaments aren’t what my grandfather, Helio Gracie, envisioned. There are so many rules that it takes away from the actual art of jiu-jitsu. We don’t see many submissions. We see cheating, we see decisions made by a referee. We need to stand together against this and support a submission only kind of revolution.”
There has been a growing discontent with a points-based system and advantage-style tournaments. Upholding the premise that most of the advantage of a larger, stronger opponent comes from superior reach and more powerful strikes, both of which are mitigated when grappling on the ground, Brazilian jiu-jitsu emphasizes getting an opponent to the ground in order to use ground fighting techniques (newaza) and submission holds (shime and kansetsu waza) involving joint locks and choke holds. A more precise way of describing this would be to say that on the ground, physical strength can be offset or enhanced by an experienced grappler who knows how to maximize force using mechanical advantage instead of pure physical strength.
BJJ permits a wide variety of techniques to take the fight to the ground after taking a grip. While other combat sports, such as Judo and Wrestling almost always use a take-down to bring an opponent to the ground, in BJJ one option is to “pull guard.” This entails obtaining some grip on the opponent and then bringing the fight or match onto the mat by sitting straight down or by jumping and wrapping the legs around the opponent.
Once the opponent is on the ground, a number of maneuvers (and counter-maneuvers) are available to manipulate the opponent into a suitable position for the application of a submission technique. Achieving a dominant position on the ground is one of the hallmarks of the BJJ style, and includes effective use of the guard (a signature position of BJJ) position to defend oneself from bottom (using both submissions and sweeps, with sweeps leading to the possibility of dominant position or an opportunity to pass the guard), and passing the guard to dominate from top position with side control, mount and back mount positions. This system of maneuvering and manipulation can be likened to a form of kinetic chess when used by two experienced practitioners. A submission hold is the equivalent of checkmate in the sport, reflecting a disadvantage which would be extremely difficult to overcome in a fight (such as a dislocated joint or unconsciousness).
The classical jujutsu of old Japan appeared to have no common strategy to guide a combatant over the course of a fight. Indeed, this was one of Kano’s most fundamental and perceptive criticisms of the classical program.’ Maeda not only taught the art of judo to Carlos Gracie, but also taught a particular philosophy about the nature of combat developed by Kano, and further refined by Maeda based on his worldwide travels competing against fighters skilled in a wide variety of martial arts.
The book details Maeda’s theory as arguing that physical combat could be broken down into distinct phases, such as the striking phase, the grappling phase, the ground phase, etc. Thus, it was a smart fighter’s task to keep the fight located in the phase of combat best suited to his own strengths. Renzo Gracie stated that this was a fundamental influence on the Gracie approach to combat, these strategies were further developed over time by the Gracies and others, and became prominent in contemporary MMA.