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What are Senpai and Kohai really? 先輩と後輩とは?

I often receive the questions that are pertaining to these two popular terms. I realized that those questions came because the western people do not know the real meaning and the rules that are attached to them.senpai

These words are very popular in the dojo but you are puzzled and wonder what they really mean. The confusion or misunderstanding arises because the concept behind these two terms is tied closely to the unique Japanese cultural concept or behavior. Let me explain this unique cultural concept so that you will have a better understanding of what is behind those two words.

First, let’s look at the kanji and their meaning so that you will understand the construction or foundation of the terms. Kanji for Senpai is 先輩 and Kohai is 後輩. Sen or means early, in advance, first or prior. You are familiar with this character as it is used in other karate words such as Sensei and Sen no sen. Hai, means fellow, person, colleague, or people. So, Senpai means a student or a practitioner who started training karate earlier.

kohaiKo, means later, afterwards, rear or aback. So you can easily guess that the meaning of Kohai is someone who started later than another or other practitioners. It is a comparison normally between the practitioners typically in the same dojo but it can expand to a larger organization or to an entire ryu-ha (style such as Shotokan).

This is a very straight forward and simple concept. Therefore, there is little confusion about this concept among Japanese. Let me give you an example. If you started your training at your dojo, say, in January 2000 then you are a Senpai to all the students who started later than February 2000. You are a Kohai to all the practitioners who started training earlier than your starting date. Some Japanese are very precise and detailed minded so that a shorter timing difference than a month makes the separation. Even one day difference may determine him to be senpai or kohai. If a person joins on the same day or very similar timing, he is called Dohai 同輩. Do () means same or equal. The sound of do is used in other characters so do not get this mixed up with another popular do () which means way or path as used in Karate-do.

In Japan, the concept of seniority is highly important and the division or classification is exercised or enforced. For instance, there is a definite hierarchy among the siblings according to their ages. The eldest brother or sister has the most power or respect compared to other siblings. Of course it comes with more responsibilities too. This goes to every aspect of Japanese society in different degrees. Two obvious places are dojo and school. It also applies to the workers as life time employment was once very common in Japan. Even though this custom is fading away in the Japanese companies the legacy of calling Senpai and Kohai in an company is still very common.

In the western world there is no strict hierarchy that is tied to the time. For instance, a male sibling is simply called a brother. To show he is older you have to add elder in front of brother. In Japanese we have one character, to describe that. Secondly, the western people are more mobile and do not stay in the same dojo for many years.

In your dojo I assume Senpai is understood as a senior student or even an assistant instructor who is not a qualified or main sensei. In some dojo all the black belts are called Senpai and the brown belts and the lower ranks are called Kohai. I understand why this is happening

Let me share one interesting thing that can happen in Japan with Senpai and Kohai. Suppose you are shodan and so is your senpai who joined the dojo, say, one year earlier. He would become eligible to take a nidan exam sooner than you. But suppose he got sick or quit karate training for a few years. You can go ahead and advance to nidan while your senpai will remain as shodan. If your senpai comes back to the dojo then you will sit in the senior position. This sitting arrangement is same in Japan but what is different is that he remains as your senpai as when he originally started karate does not change. This could cause some confusion even in Japan so in a Japanese dojo one typically cannot take a next exam until all your senpai take their exam first. This happens typically in the high school and university karate clubs. All the senior students become shodan or advance to nidan, etc at the same time.

Okazaki line up with Kanazawa

I know this concept will not work in the western world and cannot be exercised. On the other hand, I think it is good for the senior practitioners to know about this cultural concept in Japan that when you started karate is the deciding factor in determining senpai and kohai. By knowing this, you will be able to answer to a small puzzle why Okazaki sits in front of Kanazawa even though he got his 10th dan later than Kanazawa.

What is “Sensei”?  「先生」とは如何に?


We all know Sensei is translated as an instructor or a teacher. The translation is correct so there is no problem there.  I receive some questions concerning the qualifications that make a person a Sensei. There seems to be some unspoken or unexplained area that brings some mystery in karate training. I do not like a mystery so I will share my understanding of what I know about “Sensei”. I hope this will be helpful in your evaluation of an instructor or search for one.

First, let’s look at the kanji for Sensei; 先生 which may guide us to a better understanding of this term.You may remember another article where we examined from Senpai (先輩). So, means advance, ahead, first, early, etc. How about ? It means birth or life. Therefore, it literally means someone who was born earlier. In other words, it means a person who is older than you. It does not say anything about his age or his ability. Interesting, isn’t it? So, the Japanese concept is that you learn from those who are older than you as they supposedly have more experience thus they are wiser from which you can learn. This must not be a surprising concept if you remember the Japanese belief of the time seniority, whether you agree or disagree.

Then, you say “OK, I am 50 years old and the instructor is only 25, only a half of my age. Can he be my sensei?” To answer this, we have to adjust the time table to karate time. Suppose he started his karate 10 years ago and you only 5 years ago. He is your senpai in karate. If he is teaching a class regularly in your dojo then he is your Sensei. In a dojo, the age difference does not count and the time seniority comes from when one started karate training. If this sensei is mature enough to be respectable and able to give you a life guidance is totally another matter.

Another person asked, “My sensei is only Nidan. I thought a real sensei must be yondan and above. How should I consider him?” My answer is “He is your sensei.” Anyone who is in front of a class and teaching is a sensei regardless of his/her dan rank. Whether he is qualified to teach (if he has a teaching certificate) or not is another matter. Besides, having a teaching license does not automatically make him a good sensei. I know a Nidan who has been that rank for over 30 years. His training and teaching experiences probably exceed those by a younger Yondan. I have seen poorly planned instruction by many senior (7 dan and 8 dan) instructors. The key is if the instructor is enthused enough to share the knowledge and the skills he own. If you can learn something from him or her then he/she is your sensei. If you are not learning little from him or her, you can always quit the dojo and find another dojo or sensei.

Miyamoto_Musashi_Self-PortraitWe expect our sensei to be more than someone who teaches how to punch and kick. This is true because karate-do is more than just punching and kicking. You are lucky if your sensei can teach you more. Can we expect this from a sensei of 25 or 30? Some may be very matured and have many years of karate training but most of them may be too young and lack those qualities. So do not have a wrong expectation from a young sensei. His minimum obligation as an instructor is to be able to teach the karate techniques. This means he can explain and demonstrate those techniques. On the other hand, not all senior or old sensei have the qualities and qualifications either. Maturity and wisdom do not necessarily come with the age. Many of them get out of shape. If an instructor is too overweight and out of shape to demonstrate the techniques, I do not consider him as a responsible instructor.

I like what Musashi said some hundreds of years ago. He said everyone other than himself was a teacher to him. I follow his concept. My original sensei (Sugano and Asai, photo below) may be dead and gone. I believe my current sensei is everyone who comes through my life whether he is in martial arts or not. I want to learn something (good or bad) from everyone and all experiences in my life. That is my philosophy and I am not expecting the readers to agree or accept it.Seiza


How you select a sensei is totally up to you. Each of us has different expectations and objectives from our training. I hope you have a sensei who you are happy with. If you do not, I hope you will find one you will be happy with and can learn a lot from.

If you are a sensei in your dojo, The minimum obligation you have is to teach the correct karate techniques. This means you need to be in shape so that you can not only explain but also demonstrate those techniques you teach. In addition, I hope you try to provide more than the karate techniques. Many of your students are expecting this. Good luck.

What is Oss? ”押忍”とは何ぞや?


Osu kanji 2Here is another Japanese culture lesson today. We will take the same process of understanding the base meaning of the kanji that is used for this popular dojo word. Then I will add the interesting cultural aspect of this unique word.

This word is pronounced and written in a few different ways. Many write “Osu” or “Oss”, some pronounce it “Ous” and I write “Ossu”. They are just different pronunciations and all of them are “correct”.

O from “oss” is written like this,押 and it means to push or suppress. The part of “ss” or “su” is written in kanji as 忍 which means to endure or persevere. Therefore, these two kanji together, 押忍 symbolizes the attitude of suppressing your own emotions and endure the hard training or tiring toil or duty. This word is commonly used by the budo practitioners such as karate, judo and kendo. But it is also used by the athletes of the sports that are typically considered aggressive or macho such as baseball, football, etc.

It is also typically used by the male practitioners or athletes in Japan. This is because “osu” is also written as 牡 which means “male”, therefore many Japanese female feel uncomfortable saying “Osu”. In many dojo they are allowed or even recommended not to use “Osu” and use the normal greeting words and also yes and no when they answer back to their sensei , senpai and colleagues. As Judo and karate became so popular around the world, so did the word Oss/Osu. The cultural part of the word being very male oriented, however, did not spread so many western female practitioners and athletes use this word.

Let’s look at the history. Surprisingly, the origin is not clear and there are a few theories. I share two of them.


One theory is that this word was invented only in mid-20th century in the imperial Navy of Japan which supposed to have nurtured the spirit of samurai. The way it happened was like this. The Japanese for Good morning is Ohayo gozai masu. The soldiers were trained to do things in a hurry all the time in the navy including the greetings and responses. Thus, supposedly, the greetings of Ohayo gozai masu was cut down to only “O” and “su” and became “O-su”. The greetings for the afternoon and evening are different, of course, but “Osu” began to be used for all occasions including the answers whether it is yes or no.

Another theory says it was invented by the samurai of Saga clan (佐賀藩in Kyushu Island). Famous author of Hagakure (葉隠), Yamamoto Tsunetomo (山本常朝 1659 – 1719) was born in this clan and bushido was very strong and strictly exercised there. Supposedly the young samurai of Saga clan in 18th and 19th centuries used “Osu” for their morning greetings.

If you are interested in Yamamoto Tsunetomo, see Wikipedia about his biography:


Hagakure was considered by many samurai as the spiritual guide to true bushido. If you do not know about this famous book, Hagakure read the simple explanation in Wikipedia:



Many people asked me why there is only one “Osu” for both yes and no answers. To be able to understand this you need to understand the culture of bushido or Japanese martial arts. The backbone of bushido is total obedience. Read Hagakure and you will have a better understanding whether you agree or disagree with the fundamental concept of total obedience. Here in the western world, when a sensei says “jump” the students may ask “why” or say “no”. Of course, some of them may ask “How high?” In a Japanese dojo, all the students without an exception would answer “Osu” and jump. So, there is no need for a “no” answer in a dojo in Japan. I am sure many Western people would probably consider this act “stupid” or brain washed and unwise. I want to emphasize that the purpose of the comparison of the cultures of the two different worlds is not to judge which is better or right, but rather to show merely the differences so that the readers will have a better understanding.

I hope you now have a better idea of what “Oss” stands for and where it came from. I also hope that you will appreciate this word better and be more conscientious when you say “Oss!”Oss girl

What a heck are Shihan (師範), Kyoshi (教士), Hanshi (範士), Renshi (錬士), etc?


Many people ask me about these titles and today I want to give you not only the meaning of these Japanese words and the history behind them.SHIHAN_calligraphy_vertical_kanji

First, I use Shihan in front of my name. It is not because I need or want to tell the world that I am a big sensei or a big shot. I retired from a high-tech company three years ago but I was in the industry for 30 years. During those years I kept my karate background secret or confidential from my bosses and even colleagues. I was not ashamed of my karate background but karate was (and still is) a very personal thing to me and I wanted to separate my business life away from my karate life. I used LinkedIn for my high-tech network and you can check it there but I used only my name. When I joined FaceBook 5 or 6 years ago I was still working for a high-tech company so I decided to use shihan as my first name and posted myself as Shihan Yokota.  Now that I do not need to keep my karate background secret anymore I changed the name on FB as Shihan Kousaku Yokota by adding my real first name. I could have dropped shihan but it became almost like my nickname so I kept it. That is all and I will not be offended at all if anyone calls me without this title.

OK that is enough of an introduction.  Let me explain about those confusing Japanese titles. In my explanation I will add Soke and Kancho as a bonus.

Let’s start with shihan. First of all, shihan is not exactly a title. In other words, this is not something an organization would bestow or permit. Shihan (師範) means literally to be a model but it is only a formal word for sensei or instructor or teacher. So if you are teaching karate; for that matter any martial arts and non martial arts field, you can be addressed as shihan. However, it is customarily reserved for the senior instructors or teachers. For instance, if a Nidan or Sandan person at the age of 20′s will not normally be addressed as shihan even if he or she may be the chief instructor of a dojo or a club. Since it is not a bestowed title it does not have the age or rank requirement. We would consider Godan and above as the senior ranks those sensei can be addressed as Shihan. On the same token, it will not be considered as impolite or rude if you address a senior instructor as sensei even if he is 8th or 9th dan. In other words, you can address me as sensei instead of shihan.

There is one exception to the above rule. There is a bestowed title of Shuseki Shihan. Shuseki means “Top position” so it means the Chief Instructor of an organization. This is used only in a large organization like JKA, JKS, ISKF, etc as they have multiple number of senior instructors. If you are the only instructor in your dojo or an organization then you should not use Shuseki Shihan even if you are asenior rank instructor.

On the other hand, Kyoshi, Renshi and Hanshi are bestowed titles. However, in general in karate (with JKA, ISKF, JKS, IJKA and WJKA) we do not use those titles. The only exception is Zen Nihon Karatedo Renmei (Japan Karate Federation or JKF). This organization is a non style specific organization and its members are Shotokan, Shito ryu, Goju ryu and Wado ryu. It is a member of WKF and I assume it also grants these titles. I do not know why they grants these titles but I suspect there is an influence from Kendo. The history goes back to 1895 when the martial arts organization called Dai Nihon Butokukai was established. They promoted various martial arts including kendo, judo, jujitsu, kyudo, and a few others. However, this organization was dismantled by the occupation force (GQ) in 1945. Even though the same name organization was established in 1957 it is not related to the original Dai Nihon Butokukai though they probably wish to claim as such as the prewar organization received a lot of respect and honor as it was sponsored by the Japanese government. The current organization is no longer well known or large in membership as it is only a private organization without any sponsorship from the government.

Anyway, I find it interesting to meet so many Kyoshi in the Americas but yet not too many Renshi or Hanshi. According to Dai Nihon Butokukai or JKF, the ranks starts with Renshi and ends with Hanshi being the highest. So, Kyoshi is the middle rank and I do not know why I meet only Kyoshi among the instructors.

For your information, let me list the requirements to qualify those ranks (by JKF):

Hanshi (範士): 8th dan for more than 2 years, older than 60

Kyoshi (教士): 6th dan and above for minimum 2 years, older than 50

Renshi (錬士): 5th dan and above for minimum 1 year, older than 40

What is Kancho (館長)? You are familiar with Shotokan and the part of kan is the same here. Kan means building so the connotation is the dojo. Cho means the head or top (i.e. shacho: president). Kanazawa sensei uses Kancho as his title. I wonder if he wants to claim that he is the top of Shotokan which I do not know. This is a little mystery as his organization (Kokusai Shotokan Karatedo Renmei) does not end with “kan”.

The last one is Soke(宗家)and I find and hear about so many soke in the US. I laugh about this as I know they cannot be legitimate. Soke means a central family who carries a certain art as their family tradition. Though you can find such a family in some Japanese martial arts such as kenjutsu this tradition is more popularly with the non martial arts such as tea ceremony (sado), flower arrangement (kado), Japanese dancing (kabuki, noh, etc), Japanese music and instruments (shakuhachi, koto, etc). It is customarily carried by the same family of the founder but of course there are some exceptions. This is why I laugh when I see an American guy who claims a “soke” title for his karate. This means he had to create his own style which is possible but I am not sure how legitimate his style can be. Or there is another possibility which is more unlikely that is his Japanese master decided to hand over the title as this American guy was good enough to carry the style. Anyway, if you meet any one in the western world with Soke in front of his name do not trust him too much.


As many of the readers can guess that Funakoshi sensei did not care for the titles.  He never accepted any rank for himself even though he granted those ranks to his students. Thus, I am confident to conclude he did not accept any worldly titles such as Soke, Hanshi, Kyoshi, Renshi or even Kancho which he could have and deserved. The only exception is Shuseki Shihan. When Japan Karate Association (JKA) was founded in 1948 he accepted to become the first Chief Instructor. Even with this title he resigned in 1956, a year before his passing. I understand that he wanted to remain neutral as JKA was having some friction with Shotokai in 50s when both groups claimed the ownership of Funakoshi lineage.

Nakayama sensei and Asai sensei both held Shuseki Shihan positions. As far as I know they did not claim any other titles. Personally, I have no desire to claim any titles including Shuseki Shihan or even the dan rank from any organization.  Dan ranks are mass produced these days and they no longer prove any real skill level or proficiency but this another subject so I will not go into this now.


What influence did White Crane kung fu style have on karate?

Today I wish to introduce a kung fu style, White Crane (白鶴拳). Crane illustrationThis is an important style for Asai ryu karate. Tetsuhiko Asai (浅井哲彦) learned and practiced White Crane style while he lived in Taiwan (台湾) in the 70’s. As a result Asai ryu karate adopted many of the concepts and the techniques from this style.


What is White Crane Style? It is a Southern Chinese martial art which originated in Fujian (福建) province so this style is also called Fujian Crane style. Fujian White Crane is an imitative-style of Shaolin Boxing. An entire system of fighting was said to have developed based on the observations of their movements, fighting abilities and spirit.


Founder womanThe true origin of this style is not known or documented though it is attributed to Fang Qiniang (方七娘), a female martial artist. The characteristics of this style are deep rooted stances, intricate hand techniques and fighting mostly at close range as if to imitate a pecking bird. The flying crane style however has a greater amount of long range techniques although it too prefers close quarters hand oriented combat, which simulates the flapping of the wings. Some white crane styles also use a great variety of traditional weapons whereas others have discontinued practice with ancient weaponry.



Let me start with the basic ideas of this style with a video link of Master Asai demonstrating various animal techniques. Here is a link to a short video (2 and a half min) where Asai sensei demonstrated various animal techniques. This is a portion of a French video taken in 1994.


Showing kumade

Earlier we looked at the brief history of White Crane style. We found that this system was for short distance fighting and the techniques are developed based on the observations of the various animal movements.


There are many video clips on White Crane style but I will share just two forms that demonstrate some typical techniques of this style.

The first one is Southern Shaolin White Crane Fist (two and a half minutes). It repeats the same form (kata) two times. The first time it is explained in Chinese, then the second one will be in English. In this video the techniques are all open hand such as shuto, nukite, teisho, etc. The moves are fast and with some kime so that we can relate to most of these techniques.



The second form is called Bafen (one minute and 15 sec). The performer uses mostly open hand techniques but he also punches a few times with closed fist, seiken. You will notice that he gives one loud ki-ai in the middle. I also found it interesting that he ends with a bow which is not common in mainland China. I think the performer is a Taiwanese.



What do you think?  Do you see any similarity to our karate, Shotokan?


JOKO-NISEI kamaeNow take a look at one of Asai’s kata. This one is called Kakuyoku Nidan and I consider that this kata contains many of Asai ryu techniques including open hand techniques, enpi strikes and neko ashi dachi. There are three Kakuyoku kata. Kaku (鶴) means crane and yoku (翼) means wing. Master Asai himself will perform this kata then two of his students will show the bunkai of each technique. If you like this Nidan kata you can find and watch Shodan and Sandan kata.



As you can see this kata certainly does not share much similarity to any of the Shotokan kata. Did you notice any techniques from White Crane style kung fu?  Asai ryu karate is based on JKA Shotokan and Master Asai added many techniques that are not popular or commonly used in the standard Shotokan.  In other words, he introduced a few new techniques and emphasized some key techniques that are found in Shotokan but yet are not practiced often such as nekoashi dachi, tenshin, enpi, teisho, kumade, keito, etc.

Let me continue with another Asai kata here.  Suishu which  means Water Hand and it was one of Master Asai’s favorite katas. Watch the following video and see if you can detect the influence of White Crane in his Shotokan karate.




I want to bring up three karate styles that are supposed to share the root of White Crane kung fu.  Those three are Goju ryu, Uechi ryu and Shito ryu. I am not an expert in any of these styles and I look for some input and comments from those who practice these styles. What I want to do is to layout my amateur observations and share my thoughts, I also have some questions. I want to compare them with Asai karate and see if there are any similarities or differences.

UechiI will start with Uechi ryu because its founder, Kanbun Uechi (上地完文) visited China to learn Fujian kung fu (1897 – 1904).  What he learned was Pangainoon which literally means half hard and half soft. Pangainoon was indeed a southern China Fujian style kung fu but I am not sure whether it was a White Crane style or another style.  Uechi ryu practitioners may be able to help me with this. Regardless, Uechi used Pangainoon as his style when he first taught his style in Japan in the early 20th century. They are supposed to mean they use soft blocks and hard counter techniques. I find it interesting because the literal meaning of Goju ryu is hard and soft style. This Uechi ryu 2must be one of the reasons why some people regard these two styles as having the same root.  I am not sure how closely they are related and once again either a Goju ryu or a Uechi ryu practitioner may be able to help me on this particular point.



Take a look at one of the Uechi ryu kata: Sanseru


One thing I notice with Uechi ryu is that most of their hand techniques use an open hand and the closed fist techniques seem to be at a minimum. What do you think? Do you see any strong tie to White Crane style?


miyagiMany people know that Chojun Miyagi (宮城長順) is the founder of Goju ryu. He learned his karate from Kanryo Higaonna. Higaonna travelled to Southern China in the 18th century to learn Fujian White Crane style. There are many different versions of how long he toured in China, anywhere from 3 to 15 years. I understand that Miyagi was a very dedicated karateka and he visited many other masters to expand his karate expertise. I read that he even visited Itosu (sensei of Funakoshi) and humbly asked him to teach him some Shuri te techniques to compliment Miyagi’s Naha te. Itosu supposedly rejected his request by complimenting Miyagi for his expertise and told Miyagi that Itosu had nothing more to teach him.

Though Goju ryu means hard and soft style, I wonder why Miyagi made it to look like a hard and hard style. As an outsider this is the impression I certainly get. Though they have some open hand techniques they utilize a lot of closed fist techniques. Ibuki breathing also gives me the same impression. World famous Morio Higaonna sensei made his fists look fearful (ugly lol) by beating on rocks and a concrete wall. I want to emphasize that my comments are not to criticize Morio HigaonnaGoju ryu at all.  I am simply stating my impressions and I have a deep respect for this style.  I even practiced this style for one year when I first started my karate journey more than 50 years ago. I sincerely wish to receive comments and explanations from Goju ryu practitioners to enlighten me.


Here I will post a link to Seipai which I think is the softest looking kata Goju ryu has.

The kata performer in the video is Higaonna sensei:


Yamguchi Gogen

Here are two kata by Gojukai performed by GoshiYmaguchi (山口剛史), the son of Gogen Yamaguchi (山口剛玄, photo right).


The first one is Genkaku


The second one is called Chikaku, also performed by Yamaguchi.



Goshi YamaguchiWhat do you think?  These two kata were created by Goshi Yamaguchi (photo left). In fact, he created four kata and these two are a part of the newly created kata. I do not know if he practiced any White Crane style or based any White Crane kata. It is, however, very obvious these two kata show the White Crane techniques. Maybe a Gojukai practitioner may know the history of these kata.


Now if you are a Goju ryu practitioner, here is a link to a very good documentary video (44 min). Two Goju ryu practitioners in Taiwan travel to Hong Kong to search for its root in Fujian White Crane.

Kung Fu Quest: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0-OTHCGNs7o


Finally we will look at Shito ryu which was created by Kenwa Mabuni (賢和摩文仁) who learned his karate from both Itosu (糸洲) sensei and Higaonna (東恩納) sensei. Mabuni sensei named his style Shito ryu (糸東流) honoring both sensei by taking one kanji from each of their names; 糸 and 東. Mabuni sensei was indeed one of the few fortunate ones, at that time (early 20th century), to master both Naha te and Shuri te.Shito ryu-hakkaku


I am sharing a link to a Shito ryu’s kata, Hakkaku, performed by Teruo Hayashi. Hakkaku (白鶴) literally means white crane.  You can see a strong influence of White Crane in this kata.





So, what do you think?

Which style do you think carries the strong influence of White Crane?  White crane 6Which one is closest to Asai ryu karate? The more I think about these questions the more I find these points are not that important. Each style is different and it is good only if the practitioners are proficient in that style. Thus the importance does not rest on a style but on the proficiency of a practitioner.  On the other hand, it is very important for all of us to study and learn about the other styles to compliment what we are practicing to make our own karate as effective as possible. This is probably similar for a samurai to practice not only katana but practice with many different weapons to perfect his fighting ability. Let us continue our karate journey and find more excitement along the way.

What is Kagami biraki (鏡開き)?

Photo 2 Entrance

As many people seem to want to know more about Kagami biraki I decided to share some interesting information that is associated with this event as well as the explanation of the term, Kagami biraki.

Let’s start with the meaning of each word. Kagami (鏡) means “mirror”. Biraki (開き) means to open. So you would wonder how “opening the mirror” is connected with the first training of the year for the martial arts. One must look into the historical background behind this term to understand the event.
Photo 1 鏡餅During the new year period, an ornamental rice cake called Kagami mochi (鏡餅, photo left) is a standard item in many Japanese houses just as a Christmas tree is in the Western world for the Christmas season. There are many different kinds of Kagami mochi these days but the typical one is constructed with two round mochi with a strip of sea weed, a stick of dried persimons and an orange on the top as shown in the photo. Each part has its specific meaning but I will not go into that in this article.

Mochi is a dried and hard rice cake so it was a perfect portable ration for the samurai to carry when they went to a war and that is exactly what they did during the civil war period (戦国時代) Photo 3 Budoin the 16th century. So, it was their ritual to crack the rice cake after the new year period. The new year celebration ends either on January 11th or 15th depending on the lunar or Gregorian calendar. On that day the family members ceremoniously take down the mochi and break it into small pieces. They eat a piece to gain good health for the year. This breaking a mochi into small pieces and to be eaten by the family members is similar to the idea of Christian sacrament where a priest breaks a loaf of bread and the church members eat the broken pieces.

This samurai family custom has been handed down to the martial arts world and now all across Japan on January 11 or 15, all the dojos of all kinds of martial arts, of course, including karate have Kagami biraki which is the first training of the year (photo below). Photo 5 karate

Then why do we call the mochi kagami (鏡, mirror)? This was because the shape of the round mochi looked like one of the three sacred tools of Shinto, Yata no kagami (八咫鏡, sacred mirror, photo below). By calling it kagami they made the event into a religious or sacred one.Photo 6  Yata no kagami

Then why did they not call it mirror breaking (wari, 割り) like we see in tameshi wari or cutting (kiri, 切り)? Cutting a white round mochi could remind us of cutting the belly in seppuku or harakiri which is definitely bad luck thus they avoided such a word. They chose biraki (開き) which means opening that was better sounding and more appropriate for the occasion. They either cracked with their hands or used a wooden hammer to crack a dried mochi cake (photos below).


Photo 8 Kagami biraki with wooden hammer






This tradition expanded from the ornamental mochi to breaking the top lid of a sake barrel (酒樽) with a wooden hammer (木槌, photos below).

Photo 9 Sake barrelPhoto 10 kagami biraki with sake barrel


You may know that sake (酒) is considered as sacred drink in shinto and it is uPhoto 11 Weddingsed in almost all the shinto events including a wedding (photo right). I also find it interesting as this fact shares another similarity in Christianity where red wine is treated as a sacred drink.

As it came from the samurai custom thus, it has become a standard event for all the martial arts dojos and organizations in Japan. The dojos use the Kagami Biraki ceremony to signify their first practice of the new year. If you are lucky to visit Japan in the first part of January you can attend a kagami biraki where they will offer a bowl of sweet beans after the training. Photo 12 zenzaiYou may wonder why they feed you with this. It is obviously difficult to eat a raw dried mochi so they put the mochi pieces in their favorite dessert in Japan, zenzai (ぜんざい, photo left). You can see the small pieces of mochi in the photo. These days they even skip the mochi in the zenzai and they serve only the sweet beans (汁粉, photo below) which many westerners may have some problem eating them. It is OK not to eat the beans as the real thing to eat is mochi in the true tradition. If you do not like the mochi either then hide the mochi piece under the beans and pretend like you ate the mochi. Or jokingly you can ask for sake instead.Photo 13 Shiruko






More reading on Kagami biraki: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kagami_biraki

kanji 2

The deriving force behind the actions of the Japanese 日本人による行動の原点とは

Today I will touch on a subject that could look like something that has nothing to do with a martial art. On the surface it would seem so, however, you will be surprised to find that it is closely connected with Bushido. I decided to write about this because so many westerners do not know about this fact, even though they speak a lot about the subject of Bushido and respect it a lot. I felt that it is my responsibility to dig up this hidden truth and explain what is behind the behaviors of the Japanese.

I will introduce three separate incidents even though there are many more that would reveal the true essence of the Japanese attitude or mentality. One response is from this year and the last one is way back from 70 years ago. Many of the readers are interested in the occurrences in Japan so they may already know or have read about them. After your review of these three incidents, I wonder if you can point out the common cause or the reason for these attitudes or mentality. If you cannot then this article may still be useful to you as I will present a common cause for all of them at the end of this article.

OK let’s list those three incidents and I will start from the newest one. The first one was shown at the World Cup in Brazil (2014). The second one was after the huge earthquake and tsunami in the Fukushima region three years ago. The last one is the kamikaze operation that started in 1944.


1) World Cup Brazil, 2014Soccer clean up 2

Many people have watched the World Cup games in Brazil this year. But I suspect not too many readers watched the game that was held on June 15 where the Japanese team met the team from the Ivory Coast. The Japanese team lost but that is not the reason why I picked this incident. Here is a part of the report from Yahoo Sports that came out on June 15, 2014:

The Ivory Coast came from behind to beat Japan 2-1 in their first 2014 World Cup match, but despite the tough loss, the Japanese fans in attendance at the Arena Pernambuco in Recife, Brazil still made time after the final whistle to clean up after themselves.

The entire article: https://sg.sports.yahoo.com/blogs/soccer-dirty-tackle/japanese-fans-clean-up-their-section-after-world-cup-match-against-ivory-coast-015533399.html

The Japanese spectators did this in every game ever since the Japanese team joined the World Cup event in the 90’s. It is interesting that the spectators of the other countries picked up this good deed and cleaned after the games. The stadiums have a professional cleaning crew and the crew will clean up the place after the games so there was no need for the spectators to do this. Then, why did the Japanese spectators decided to do this? The author of this article wrote, “But this respectfulness wasn’t just limited to the fans. Before the clean-up began, the Japanese players lined up and bowed to their loyal supporters. The author concluded it was from respectfulness and he was partially correct. I will write about the hidden part in the conclusion of this article.

2) Tohoku earth quake and tsunami

On March 11th in 2011, a huge earthquake (8.9 magnitude) and the ensuing tsunami caused by the earthquake hit the Tohoku region of Japan. In this disaster nearly 16,000 people were killed and more than 2,600 people are still missing.

It was a terrible disaster and I hesitated a little about adding this event as all those who survived suffered a lot. After more than three years, they have not been able to recover fully even though much work has been done and it is still continuing today.

line up-a-7-eleven-despite-limited-access-toI decided to add this as it was widely reported by the western media that there was no looting in the disaster area. Instead, people had just formed long but orderly lines outside grocery stores and convenience shops. This was not an uncommon thing in Japan because we saw this behavior after another huge earth quake that hit Kobe (my hometown) 20 years ago. However, non -Japanese people praised this behavior and were puzzled why the Japanese did this. Outside of Japan, a lawless and looting atmosphere is very common after such a natural disaster. An American publication, The Week published an article on March 15, four days after the disaster. It’s title was “Why is there no looting in Japan?”. The article tried to find the reason and they thought it came from Japan’s education in discipline. The article concludes the Japanese culture is not “superior” but it is only “different”.

Here is the article: http://theweek.com/article/index/213154/why-is-there-no-looting-in-japan

Obviously, the writer could not find the real reason. I will explain and bring up the real reason after introducing the third incident.


3) Kamikaze project that started on October 25, 1944kamikaze-attack

This incident is the major reason why I decided to write this article. The first two incidents received reasonable understanding by the westerners but this one, obviously, did not.

Combined from all the records of suicide attacks from Army and Navy, more than 14,000 soldiers volunteered and died in the operation. Many of the readers know that Kamikaze was a suicide attack using fighter planes. However, the suicide attack project had many other vehicles for the same purpose such as a mini-submarine, Kaiten and a jet or rocket engine devices that were a man operated flying bomb, Ohka. The suicide attack bomb was called Baka bomb by the American soldiers meaning “stupid” bomb.


Now I have listed three acts by the Japanese. The first two acts were praised by the non Japanese people but the last one is typically considered as “meaningless”, “pointless” or “wasteful”. I am aware that this was indeed a very desperate tactic and too many young people were to die.

But what I want to bring up here is that there is one thing that is common among those three responses. In other words, there was the same motivation and principle behind them. And the short answer is that it was “Bushido”. Some of you may be surprised by my statement. You may agree with the Kamikaze incident but you must wonder why it is so with the other two. Once you understand what Bushido is truly all about, hopefully, you will realize that it is the common principle behind those incidents. I have already written an article about Bushido in the past so I will ask the readers to read it if you wish to read the full story on this subject. Here in this article I will pick up some of the explanation I used in that article.

bushi no seishinHere is the summary: The ancient Japanese adopted the teachings of Confucianism, Gojo no toku (五常の徳), five Confucian virtues. The five virtues are Jin (仁)、Gi (義)、Rei (礼)、Chi (智) and Shin . These five virtues are also called Gorin no michi (五倫の道), five ethics. The Japanese added two more ethics of Chu (忠) and Kotei (孝悌). On the other hand, they dropped Chi (智) and Shin (信), and consolidated the idea of Kotei (孝悌) with Chu (忠). They kept four virtues; Jin, Gi, Rei and Chu from this list and added the new virtues of Yu (勇), Makoto (誠) and Meiyo (名誉) to complete the 7 principles as the Samurai spirit.


I will explain the concept behind each virtue briefly: 1) Gi (義), 2) Yu (勇), 3) Jin (仁), 4) Rei (礼), 5) Makoto (誠), 6) Meiyo (名誉) and 7) Chu or Chugi (忠義).”

Two most important virtues for samurai were Gi (義) and Yu (勇). They were considered to be the twin concepts that cannot be separated.

1) Gi (義) means justice, righteousness or morality. Samurai considered their duties, obligations and responsibilities as something that they had to defend and execute even risking their life.

2) Yu (勇) means bravery, courage and decisiveness. The concept of Yu is unique as it not only demands enough bravery to face a battle or death but at the same time the decision process must be quick. Indecisiveness and procrastination are considered not meeting Yu.

3) Jin (仁) means benevolence, kind and humane but what does it really mean? It means that you are kind to all kinds of people including the poor, sick and handicapped. This character does not seem to fit a typical samurai because he seems to be ruthless. This character was selected for the ruling layer of the samurai class. They believed the most important virtue for the ruling class is benevolence and kindness to the common people.

4) Rei (礼) is something we karate practitioners are very familiar with. Thus the general explanation is not necessary here, however, one thing we must remember is that Rei is not only an expression of the respect but also consideration for others. I have pointed out that the act of the Japanese spectators at the World Cup game in Brazil. This was a good example of Rei. They cleaned up the stadium after the game. The Japanese people consider trashing the stadium as disrespectful to the football teams and the game itself. We, the karate practitioners, understand this as we would consider it disrespectful if it happened in our dojo. As we clean our dojo after our training, the Japanese spectators cleaned the stadium as they do in the other games. This is the act of Rei (礼).

Bushido kakejiku





5) The concept of makoto is an important but also a difficult one to understand. Many of the readers know Dojo Kun in Japanese and that it’s second principle is “Makoto no michi o mamoru koto (誠の道を守ること)”. The translation is “Be faithful”. I have already written about the full translation of Dojo Kun also. If you are interested in reading the full meaning you may want to look for this article in my blog. In any case, the translated word of faithful can be confusing and misleading so the true meaning of Makoto must be explained here. Makoto refers to a figure without a lie, or a falsehood but with truth and sincerity. So, an overt or an excessive action in greetings or behavior is considered not Makoto thus lacking the true essence of Rei which must be performed with sincerity and without falsehood. Interestingly, lying was considered as weakness rather than as an evil. Now, weakness was considered by the samurais as dishonorable thus a Bushi was expected to deliver what he promised. This is what Bushi ni nigon wa nai (武士に二言は無い) means. There is no taking back of a samurai’s statement.

6) Meiyo (名誉) means reputation and fame but it is not necessarily tied to popularity. A samurai did not look for nor make an extra effort to earn Meiyo. Simply by being a samurai was Meiyo so most of the time all they had to do was to simply uphold the samurai way, Bushido and completing his task or responsibility.

Even though all seven virtues were important, the most effort they made was to avoid all the negative things that would bring haji, a shame, to his name and to his family. The negative things included showing fear, acts of cowardice, not upholding justice and failing in his task or responsibility. In such a case a samurai would choose seppuku to keep his honor or Meiyo.

7) The last virtue is Chugi (忠義) which means loyalty towards a samurai’s lord. Rei and Chugi were two unique and important requirements. One thing I need to add is that the samurais were taught that value and judgment had to be measured by the country (the war lord’s territory), one’s family and individual (in that order). This is something that would not be accepted by the western world, but it was that way then and in some ways the trend still exists in Japan.

When you put all those virtues together, the summary is that the selfless and brave actions and activities would benefit not only the family but also the general public. This is why the soccer spectators cleaned up after the ball game. This is the same reason why the residents of Fukushima Prefecture, after the earthquake, lined up in front of the super markets and bought only what they needed for that day. It was not because of a discipline that they lined up or cleaned up. It was self respect, love for the neighbors and self-honor to do the right thing.

Those two acts caught the attention of the non Japanese people and were publicized in newspapers. However, there are many other acts in Japan that westerners are impressed and amazed by. They all come from the same principle and let me give you some examples. Train scheduleOne interesting example is the punctuality of the public transportation (trains and buses) in Japan. I have mentioned this in my Facebook posting under “Seven Wonders of Japan” recently. Almost every train arrives on time. If you plan to take a bullet train (fast and clean) you better be on the platform a few minutes earlier as they leave ON time. Even the buses are pretty much on time so be prepared if you are taking a bus from your hotel to the airport or vice versa. This is simply because the drivers care about the passengers and they do not want to cause a problem by being late.


Another example is that you will witness not only the automobiles but the pedestrians also heed the traffic light no matter what time it may be. Even if it is 2 or 3 o’clock in the morning and there may be no other cars in sight, they patiently wait until the light turns green. It is certainly not because they are afraid of getting a traffic ticket (especially pedestrians have no possibility of receiving a traffic ticket). They respect the rules and they want to do the right thing even if no one is watching.


Another example is the case of lost and found (I included this in “Seven Wonders”). If you lose a cell phone or a wallet in Japan, including Tokyo, there is a good chance that it will turn up and be returned to you. So, if you visit Japan and if you lose something important such as your cell phone, wallet, camera or a passport, do not give up too easily. Report it to the police station or at your hotel. They will help you. It may take a day or two but it will turn up if you contact the right place. One Japanese TV station did a documentary on this very subject. A TV person would leave behind a wallet in a restaurant in one case and on a park bench in another situation. The scenes were monitored by a hidden camera. They tried a dozen times in both situations. Guess what, all the people (24 of them) who discovered the wallet (some cash was in it) brought it to the restaurant staff or a park guard. Those people could have left with the wallet but none did. Sure, you can say that the TV program could be rigged or fixed. I believe the result and the Japanese would not be surprised to hear this as this kind of kindness or help happens all the time. Does this mean we have no crimes in Japan? No, we have some criminals and some people do steal things but the crime rate is extremely low and rare when you realize there are more than 12 million people in Tokyo.


mujin hanbaishoLet me give you one more example that will be amazing and almost unbelievable for the non Japanese people. It is the kiosk stands in the countryside that is self service and unmanned operation (also in “Seven Wonders”). The kiosks stands are run by the farmers and they sell mainly vegetables and fruits but the farmers may sell other things. The farmers come in the morning and drop off their goods (vegetables or fruits) and they are gone till later in the evening when they return to pick up the leftovers and the money.

At a kiosk stand you only see the vegetables or fruits with the price tags. You also find a box or a bucket where you are supposed to put the money. You find them in the countryside all over Japan. The people there pay and they do not steal. They have self respect so nobody needs to watch them. Oh, they even have a parking lot, a hot spring bath and a park with the same system. Can you imagine this? No camera, no ticket and no attendant. It is totally up to your conscience and honor.

The Japanese people consider this natural and normal. Is this because of the education or discipline in the school? Yes and no. We learned this value in school but it is not only from our teachers but we learn this from all of the seniors around us such as our parents, relatives and the adults in the neighborhoods. The Japanese, in general, share this virtue among themselves and the root is from Bushido and its principles.


Now I hope you can see the point I am trying to make with the Kamikaze. During the war the American soldiers called the Kamikaze attacks as “stupid”. These attacks, though suicidal and seemingly meaningless, were truly a desperate tactic and might have looked futile. Those young pilots (in their teens and early 20’s) knew that most of them would not even get to reach their targets (the US ships) but that did not matter. They believed that their selfless action would protect their families and the citizens back home. They believed the cause they had weighed heavier than their lives. Wouldn’t you fight, even if you are unarmed, against an armed intruder if you detected an intruder was going to kill your children or your family members? No one would call your action as meaningless or stupid even if you get killed for doing this. Kamikaze pilots action was to them the same. They wanted to defend their family members by sacrificing their lives. This is exactly what the bushido principle calls for.



I call these pilots the samurai because they happily sacrificed their lives for the country and the families. I have a great admiration and pride for what they did and I will not forget about the bushido they showed with their lives.

Dojinmon Wado-ryu Dojo, Porto Alegre, Brazil visit report

Dojinmon Dojo is a Wado-ryu dojo located in the very nice area of Porto Alegre, Brazil is run by Prof, Nelson d’Avila Guimarães. He is 5th Dan Wado-Ryu Karate-Do Renmei (Japão) and 6th Dan Confederação Brasileira de Karate.

This was my first visit at a Wado-ryu dojo ever. I was very excited to visit a Wado-ryu dojo because I was very curious to find how similar Wado-ryu training to that of Shotokan. Of course, you cannot have a conclusive opinion by visiting only one dojo but my curiosity was very high.



First of all, the visit was not planned until a week ago. One of my Facebook friends, Fabricio Bertoluci found that I was visiting Porto Alegre in November. We decided to meet on November 3rd to simply talk about karate. I am a karate nerd so I welcome any opportunity to meet another karateka. Until I met him I did not realize that he is a Wado-ryu practitioner. I found him to be very dedicated and interesting person. I enjoyed our meeting and we discussed many different subjects including the benefit and the harm of weight lifting, health benefit of karate related to the physical and/or mental patients, etc. Fabricio is going through a physical therapy because he injured his knees so he had his experience to those subjects. In addition, he is a college student right now and studies physio therapy and sport medicine in his college study so his opinion was backed by the modern medical and science background which made our conversation more interesting.


During the meeting I mentioned that I had never visited a Wado-ryu dojo and Fabricio invited me to visit his dojo. Of course, he had to check with his sensei and get his permission first so he could not promise a visit on that day. After a few days later he received the permission so I visited his dojo, Dojinmon Dojo on November 10th. It is located in the central part and a residential area of Porto Alegre. The dojo has a very nice front and a house converted hall (see the photo above). It was very clean and well organized. It was very pleasing as I did not see many trophies and other junks that are common in many other dojos I have visited before. I met Shihan Nelson Guimarães, the chief instructor and found him to be a confident and courteous individual.

This set the tone and all the practitioners there gave me a warm welcome to my visit.

The class started at 18:00 and they did intensive warm up exercises which lasted more than 20 minutes. This was conducted by the assistant instructor, Diego Tamagnone sensei. I was a little surprised that they started the warm up exercises without a line up ritual but I discovered that they do this after the warm up exercise. After the warm up Shihan Nelson got on the floor and joined the group. They did the line up ritual which was very similar to the one we, Shotokan dojos do and started the training. There were about a dozen students at first but many late comers joined the class as it progressed. At the end there were about twenty students, mostly senior ranks (brown belt and above) but there were some beginners and intermediate students. They wore blue and green belt but I could not tell their kyu level. It was a mix class and all of them followed the same menu.

The actual training time was about 45 minutes long and they spent half of the time on kihon. Most of the techniques they practiced were very similar to ours. As I suspected I did not see yoko keage though they practiced gedan kekomi. They used sanchin stance when they practiced punching in a still stance. In the idogeiko (practicing with body shifting) they used zenkutsu, kokutsu and kiba dachi. I do not recall if they used neko ashi dachi. They may use it but did not see it in the kihon keiko. One big difference I noticed in the kihon keiko is that they have an irimi tsuki in which you lean your upper body forward in a sharp hanmi position as you deliver a punch. They also practiced a lot of gedan level punches, haito uchi and teisho uchi. I heard that Shihan Nelson believes in bujutsu type of karate rather than sport karate thus they practice those techniques.

After kihon, they did kumite practice with ippon kumite. I was impressed that they did not do the common combination we see in a shotokan dojo; jodan age uke and chudan gyaku zuki. They did jodan nagashi uke and the counter was various including uraken, enpi and as suspected a throw. They started with ippon zuki (one punch) attack then move to nihon zuki (two punches) attack exercise in which an opponent would block those two punches before giving a counter. I found their kihon kumite techniques are closer to bunkai. I am also pleased to see that they did not do the sanbon and gohon kumite which are very popular in the shotokan dojos.


The last part was, of course, kata. They use the old names for their kata as Otsuka, the founder of Wado-ryu departed Funakoshi before Funakoshi changed the kata names to the Japanese names. For instance they practice Kanku dai but they called it Kushanku. I did not consider the name matter important but I just wanted to include this in the report. They practiced several katas in addition to Kanku dai including Bassai dai and Tekki shodan. They looked similar to our katas and very recognizable. However, the differences were notable also. I do not say they were better or worse but simply I believe their katas were closer to what Funakoshi brought from Okinawa. In other words they (Wado-ryu) kept the katas closer to what Funakoshi taught in the early 2th century. On the other hand, for the Shotokan group there was a big change brought by Yoshitaka, Funakoshi’s son as well as the influence by Nakayama. These two senseis brought the larger movements of the arms and the legs as well as the lower stances. So, studing the Wado-ryu katas is an excellent reference if you wish to see the katas before the changes or closer to the original forms.

I was surprised that Shihan Nelson allowed me to share some of the Asai karate ideas. He asked me to spend 10-15 minutes to share something with his students. So, I changed to my gi and had a very informal session without any rituals. After my self introduction I covered the concept of the three requirements that are needed to build a strong karate. The three requirements are flexibility, balance and strong legs. I picked two or three typical exercises to train those three points. Due to the short time we did only 10 or 20 times of each exercise. I did not think the students got tired but at least I hope they could get an idea how they work. The exercises were the only thing I could cover and could not go into any of the Asai techniques. I was impressed that the students were more flexible and coordinated than the average practitioners. I hope what I covered was something new and beneficial. I look forward to receiving the feedback from the students.

At the end of the session we took a group photo (below). Shihan Nelson was nice enough to invite me back when I visit Porto Alegre next time. I am very happy to make many new karate friends at this dojo and also that this connection can be the beginning of my karate network in Porto Alegre. Muito obrigado ao Prof. Nelson e todos os seus alunos.



I want to emphasize that my observation of the training at Dojinmon is not complete nor conclusive. I was with two other visitors and my attention to the training was disrupted several times so I might have missed many things in their syllabus. If you happen to find any negative remarks in my report it was not my intention to criticize Wado-ryu or Dojinmon. I only have the total respect to both. My intention in my report is always to compare and learn. I hope the readers will find the same.

Wado-ryu Dojinmon Dojo Nov 2014 #2

Shihan Kousaku Yokota interview: Why Asai karate?

LeandreThis interview was done by Sensei Leandre Rosa of Brazil.  He gave me a lot of good questions and I want to thank him for this opportunity to introduce ASAI and Asai karate. This interview will be translated in Portuguese and will be posted later.


1. Let me ask you about yourself, Shihan Yokota. I am sorry to say this but I have heard from many people that you are not known in Brazil like Kanazawa and Yahara who are well known here by the senior karateka. No one had heard of you until recently. It seems that you appeared suddenly with the books (“Shotokan Myths” and “Shotokan Mysteries”) that you published and with your new organization, ASAI. It has been only recently the Brazilians began to hear your name and about Asai karate. It seems very strange so please tell us how did this happen.

(KY) Yes, what you said is true and I had no exposure until 2009. There are two main reasons why this was the case.

The first reason was that I had a full time job (non karate) to support my family with three sons. I simply did not have time to write an article (let alone a book) or to travel for a seminar. It finally changed in 2009 when I lost my job and got divorced at the same time. I took advantage of these fortunate events and decided to teach karate full time.

The second reason came from a very Japanese way of thinking. I had two senseis to whom I felt I owed my karate to. First sensei was Sugano, 9th dan JKA co-chairman who taught the basics of shotokan karate. The other is Asai, 10th dan Founder of JKS who taught me Asai style karate. While they were still alive I felt I must not go out myself so I declined all the invitations for an interview or give a seminar.

Sugano sensei passed away in 2002 and Asai sensei followed in 2006. After that period I felt those senseis would allow me to go out myself and share my knowledge. My full time karate activities started in 2009. Since that time, I resigned from the JKS and published my first book in 2010. I also began visiting different countries to teach Asai style karate which is a very unique Shotokan Karate. I plan to visit Brazil two times every year and hope to meet many dedicated karate practitioners in Brazil.

Dojo Group Picture

2. Before you followed Master Asai’s JKS, your karate training was under Master Sugano JKA, and later you became an assistant instructor of Master Okazaki, ISKF. I am sure you also met other famous masters but how did Master Asai inspire you so much that you decided to propagate his name and legacy?

(KY) It is true that I was lucky to have had different instruction from some famous instructors including Nakayama, Kanazawa, Okazaki, Yaguchi, Mikami, Tanaka and many others. They were all excellent karate senseis and I believe I learned a lot from all of them. Thanks to all of them they built a solid foundation of Shotokan karate in me. I will never discredit their influence in my karate.

I knew Master Asai since the 80s as he and I both belonged to the same organization, the JKA at that time. I saw his demonstrations at the All Japan Championship in Tokyo which I participated in 1981 and 1982 (I represented my state, Hyogo). I was very much impressed with his karate because he had those signature techniques of the whipping arms and legs. However, at that time I did not appreciate his circular and whip like techniques enough to follow him. In fact, I was fully into the JKA style strong kime techniques that are straight and linear.

When I hit 50 years of age I wanted to improve but could not find a way with the techniques of JKA. I felt very frustrated and in fact I quit karate for three years (1997 through 2000). I returned to Japan and entered a Ki training center in Tokyo. I learned how to relax deeply and the importance of using the backbone in relaxation exercises. In 2001 I happened to participate in an Asai seminar and saw his karate while in his mid 60s. He was still flexible and his techniques were still like a whip. At that moment, I immediately knew that his way was exactly how I wanted to be when I reach his age. In addition, I was impressed to have found that he spent two to three hours every morning. So he became my karate model.Asai with his autograph


3. You were a life time member of JKA then you switched to Asai’s organization, JKS in 2002. Then, you resigned from JKS in 2009 and you created your own organization, ASAI last year. What happened here?

(KY) You are correct that I was a life time member of JKA and I kept it for 40 years (my name is still listed in the JKA member list even today). It was a very difficult decision and it took me a year to switch my membership from JKA to JKS. As the multiple membership is not permitted in Japan, so I had to pick one. It was hard but I really wanted to follow Master Asai so I switched. I knew I was doing the right thing and I do not regret what I did. In fact I believe that was the best thing I did for my karate. Every time I visited Tokyo I visited Master Asai and learned a lot from him.

Unfortunately, he passed away in August of 2006 at the age of only 71. He had major surgery in the winter and he was supposed to rest but instead he visited the US and Mexico in July to do a seminar which definitely shortened his life. I wrote the details about his last seminar in my second book and the chapter’s title is “The Last Samurai”.

For three more years I stayed in JKS even after Master Asai’s passing. I wanted to promote Asai karate as a member of JKS. However, as time passed JKS shifted its attention to its new Chief Instructor, Sensei Kagawa. With due respect he is a great karate-ka too but his style is not Asai ryu. His style is the standard JKA shotokan. I understand the necessity of doing this for JKS but this change made me decide to resign. I belonged to another non Japanese organization for three years to promote Asai karate mainly in Europe. I had to resign from that organization too in 2013. After thinking it over for one month I decided to create a non political organization solely to promote Asai karate. The new organization’s name is ASAI (Asai Shotokan Association International) and there are no other organization in the world that is doing this.


4. I would like to ask you about your two books: “Shotokan Myths” and “Shotokan Mysteries”. Where did you get the references discussed in them? Did Master Asai or Sugano have anything to do with the information you provide to us in your books?

Book cover Myths(KY) This is a good question, too. I have read hundreds if not thousands of books on all kinds of subjects including karate, other martial arts, sports medicine, kinesiology, philosophy, zen, etc. Some of the ideas and information came from Master Asai. However, most of the contents in those books are my own knowledge and the accumulation of the information that I received from those books. When I needed to quote something I always put the sources. For an example, in the teaching of Ueshiba’s San Go Ichi, I listed the name of the book I quoted from. As I have little knowledge about Aikido I had to refer to a book on this subject which I happen to own.


5. I understand that your first book, “Shotokan Myths”, is being translated into Portuguese now. When will it be published? What is the plan for your second book, “Shotokan Mysteries?”Shotkan_Mysteries_LowResol 2

(KY) The translation has been completed and it is going through a proof reading process right now. Unfortunately, I do not have an exact date of publication but I hope it will be soon. The second book will follow suit if the first one is successful. I hope many people in Brazil will buy “Shotokan Myths” in Portuguese.

I am planning to publish my third book (in English) towards the end of this year or early next year. If you liked the first two, you will like the new book too. I will share one thing with the readers here. The title of the new book is “Shotokan Transcendence” and this book was written in a spirit of “going beyond”. I am very excited about it.  


6. I was one of the participants of the seminar you gave in Campinas this year. I found your training excellent, at the same time I felt everything we did was very advanced. Was this expected? In other countries that you visit and teach, do the participants make the same comment?

(KY) I am pleased that you enjoyed the seminar in Campinas. I enjoyed it too, because I was very impressed with the participants as they were all very dedicated and enthusiastic.

Your impression that the syllabus was advanced was natural and expected. You felt that way only because you were not used to the Asai techniques. Many movements such as the Tenshin (rotation) were new to you. I purposely selected the techniques that are not familiar to the participants. When this happens to a black belt, one feels like they were back to being a white belt again. Naturally, they felt lost and very uncomfortable. When I experienced Asai karate for the first time, it happened to me too. It took me a few years to get used to the new ideas and techniques. Many new techniques are included in Asai kata, Junro Shodan through Godan. Once you master them, you can advance to Joko kata (1 – 5) that are designed for the black belts. Practicing those katas you will soon get used to most of the Asai techniques.


7. Do you think the sport Karate and Budo Karate can be practiced concurrently by a karateka?

(KY) Yes, it is possible but only if that person truly understands what Budo Karate is. For most people who claim they are practicing Budo Karate do not know what it is. They think it is Budo Karate only if they are not in a competition. Budo Karate and Sports Karate are two totally different things. I am not going to write about the difference here. I teach only Budo and Bujutsu Karate and my aim in my seminar is to pass on some Budo concepts as well as the Asai techniques so I hope many readers will be able to participate in my seminars.


8. I know you personally and I have you as my model. The last time we met, you mentioned that you live your life based on the precepts of the Dojo Kun. There are Senseis who recite the Dojo Kun daily and say they live by Budo but they do not conduct themselves with budo. What do you think of them?Dojo kun by Asai

(KY) It is very true that there are some instructors who do not live by Dojo Kun. However, I do not wish to criticize them or talk about them. Criticizing them will not make me or you any better. I only feel bad for the students who train under those teachers. I am planning to write an article about this. My advice to those students is if the students find their senseis are unethical, irresponsible, immoral, untruthful or in-dedicated, it is best to leave those instructors. Karate is not only the physical techniques. It comes with the philosophy and intangible teaching. It may be difficult to leave a teacher but it is better not to have any teacher than settling for a bad teacher.


9. Master Yokota, what do you think of training other martial arts? Do you think we should focus on only one style or is it beneficial to practice others?

(KY) Your question is a good one. I recommend all the practitioners to have an open mind and a desire to learn more. This includes not only the other karate styles but also other martial arts such as jujitsu and kung fu.

Having said that, I recommend that a practitioner focuses on one karate style for three to five years. By then, he/she will be Shodan or Nidan and will have a solid foundation in one style. If you train in two different karate styles one can get confused or mixed up as different styles tend to emphasize differently on the same subjects. It is ok, however, to mix with another martial art that is totally different from karate. A good example may be Aikido, Kendo, Kyudo or Kobudo (weapons). They will expand your physical ability. After securing your karate foundation on one style you can start learning other karate styles and martial arts.

However, I have one requirement. Cross training is advisable only for those who can train at least 2 or 3 hours every day. If you have the time only for two or three times per week then I suggest that you would focus on only one thing.


10. The youth nowadays is considered Generation Y, a generation with lower concentration and poor attention span. How do you see the relationship of karate and this generation?

(KY) Yes, I guarantee that Karate training is very beneficial to not only the Generation Y youths but also for both physically and mentally challenged people. In my last dojo I had two mentally challenged students. They are still training after I passed the dojo to another instructror. The attention and physical ability of those students increased significantly. The parents of these students (both students were young) were very grateful and they support their sons’ karate activities.


11. I often access the blog page of ASAI website (www.asaikarate.com/blog) and I find the interesting and well researched articles you wrote. I can tell that you have researched and studied well before you wrote them. Luckily some have been translated into Portuguese. I liked the articles on Ki, Breathing Method and Bushido. What are you planning to write about in the future?

(KY) The future articles are secret. That’s a joke. Seriously, I have many ideas and I plan to write about all of them eventually. It will probably take me a few years if not longer. I was focusing on the Shotokan matters when I started writing several years ago. I touched on the myths and mysteries of common things in Shotokan such as kiai, kime, kumite, bunkai and various katas such as Heian, Tekki, Hangetsu and Chinte. Lately I have expanded my subjects to other styles such as Goju-ryu and other martial arts such as Aikido and Wing Chun. In the future, I plan to cover even wider varieties of the topics including Japanese cultural things, philosophy and science. By the end of September I will post my next article on Tachikiri, a special training of Kendo, which I am sure all karatekas will enjoy learning this unique training method.

We are lucky that we have an excellent translator, Mr. Samir Berardo who is a member of ASAI and the first ASAI member to pass the online examination to Shodan. I want to thank him here for his dedicated work. I am confident his work will be a big contribution to the better understanding of Karate in Brazil.

Let me take this opportunity to ask the readers for their assistance. We are lucky to have Samir but he is only one person. He is also a busy person with his full time job and family obligations. We have so many more articles to be translated so additional translators would be a big help. If you are fluent in both English and Portuguese, please help us with the translation work. Most of the articles are not that long, about ten pages or less. Please contact me directly and your help will be greatly appreciated not only by me but by hundreds, possibly thousands of the readers in Brazil and other countries. My email address is <asai.karate@yahoo.com>.


12. Now please tell us what is Asai ryu karate? How is it different from the standard Shotokan karate?Funakoshi and Nakayama

(KY) Asai ryu karate is unique but not too much different from the standard Shotokan. It was created by Master Asai who was the Technical Director of JKA in the 80’s. So, our karate has a solid foundation in Funakoshi/Nakayama JKA style. Master Asai was sent to Taiwan in the 60’s and the 70’s to teach karate there. During that time he learned the techniques of Hakutsuruken, White Crane Kung fu from a Chinese master. So, he combined the long distance fighting method of Shotokan and the short distance fighting method of Kung Fu. Thus, Asai karate is smooth with the circular motions of Kung fu and at the same time it is dynamic and powerful with the linear Shotokan techniques. We believe this is the next generation of bujutsu and budo karate. We can provide the advanced karate concepts and the techniques to the Shotokan practitioners. I hear the many frustrations of the many senior Shotokan practitioners that they feel they have reached a plateau with their skill level and they are unable to reach the next level. Asai karate can be the answer and they may be able to advance to the higher level of Shotokan karate by practicing its syllabus.

White_CraneThere are more than 50 Asai katas but only five of them are required for the Asai ryu practitioners. The required kata is Junro and there are five of them from Shodan to Godan. They complement the Heian katas. For instance, a 5th kyu student will learn both Heian Godan and Junro Shodan. A 4th kyu student will practice both Tekki Shodan and Junro Nidan, etc. We allow a new dojo member 2 to 3 years to learn Junro kata. The new members have an option to omit Junro from their kyu examination syllabus. We do not rush them to learn the new katas. They need to enjoy learning the new katas so we allow a lot of time for this important process.


13. What is your organization, ASAI all about? What are its purposes and goals?

(KY) Thank you for asking this. ASAI has two purposes. One is being a non political organization to promote Asai style karate around the world. We are open to all the practitioners from any style. We wish to provide a home for the practitioners who do not belong to any international organization so that they can get the world class training and also dan recognition. Some practitioners have strong ties or loyalty to a certain organization which is understandable and respected. We allow multiple organization memberships which means you can affiliate with ASAI while you can retain your membership with your current organization. This way they can belong to their organization and at the same time they can learn Asai ryu karate. The second purpose is to keep the name of Asai alive and remembered.

Our second goal is simple but challenging. We wish to reach out to all Shotokan practitioners and to have the members in every country in the world.

I have listed the benefits for the ASAI members on the website. www.asaikarate.com

If you are interested, please contact us. We welcome everyone into our karate family.


14. What is your idea to develop it in Brazil?

(KY) I have two main strategies.ASAI Logo

I am very confident about the karate we offer. Asai karate is a high quality system, which no one can dispute, but the people need to see and experience it. So, I will continue to visit different countries and show Asai karate to as many people as possible. My schedule is busy but I still plan to visit Brazil two times a year. I consider Brazil to be the key country in South America.

Even though we have members in more than 30 countries, we need to be heard more and be better known. So what we need is exposure and education. Thus, my second strategy is to write and publish more books. My articles have been published in many Karate magazines. However, the exposure here is limited. To supplement this, my books are being sold via Amazon. This helps us to receive much more attention and wider audience.

When they participate in my seminars they can see that I am in good shape and able to show them Asai karate techniques. With the articles and the books the readers will find that I have knowledge and an understanding of karate.

There is no quick way to expand an organization. I know it will take time as the process is slow. But I have the patience and time so I am confident that we will be able to find many practitioners who share the same value and interest.

I hope to meet all the practitioners in Brazil at my future seminars. Oss!

Shiko dachi, a forgotten stance in Shotokan? 四股立ちは忘却されたのか?


Have you ever used shiko dachi  四股立ち in your kihon or kata? IShiko dachi kanji 2f you are a shotokan practitioner I assume you have not. Do we find this stance in our katas? No, and as a result we do not use this stance in our kihon. Haven’t you ever thought it was sort of strange? I did. No one, as far as I know, has ever bothered to explain if there is any good reason why. If shiko dachi was there from the start what had happened to it? Isn’t it an interesting question and wouldn’t you like to find out? Let us investigate together and try to find the answers.

First, we need to look at the shotokan history by reviewing the textbooks. I always refer to two of the shotokan classics; Funakoshi’s Karatedo Kyohan  空手道教範 (2005 Neptune Publications Incorporated) and Nakayama’s Dynamic Karate (1966 Kodansha). I believe these two books are the foundation of shotokan karate and the best references. I have a copied version of Japanese Karatedo Kyohan (1935 Kobunsha) but for our discussion I will use the translated version which was translated by Harumi Suzuki-Johnson.

Karatedo KyohanIn Chapter 3 of Karatedo Kyohan, pages 22 and 23), Funakoshi listed seven stances, namely Hei soku dachi, Hachi ji dachi, Tei ji dachi, Zen kutsu, Ko kutsu, Neko ashi, and Kiba dachi. He stated, “There are seven general stances.” I am a little surprised in the incompleteness of the list as it misses the very popular and important stances such as musubi dachi, fudo (sochin) dachi, hangetsu dachi, tsuru ashi dachi, sanchin dachi and kosa dachi to name a few. So, it is not a surprise that shiko dachi did not make it in this list. I will explain extensively why shiko dachi did not make it as a popular or key stance in shotokan later in this article.

How about with Dynamic Karate? Its Chapter One is “Stance and Posture”. In page 27, Shiko dachi is listed among other key stances such as Kiba dachi and Fudo dachi. Then in page 37 Shiko dachi is shown again by occupying the entire page with a photo and some explanation. Dynamic KarateHowever, the explanation by Nakayama 中山正敏 (1913 – 1987) is very short, “This stance is just like the straddle-leg stance except that the feet are turned outward at an angle of 45 degrees and the hips are lower. A plum line dropped from the center of the knees would hit a point midway between the feet.” That is all. It does not say why it is included and how it is used. It is introduced twice but you would wonder why bother. I will share my understanding regarding this subject towards the end of this article.

Now let’s look at the other styles and see if they use Shiko dachi. It may be a surprise to some readers that this stance is a very popular stance. Seienchin 2It is found in many katas from the other styles. Probably the most representative one with the shiko dachi stance may be Seienchin which is one of the Shitei katas in the mixed style tournaments like WKF, WUKF and WKC. This kata is one of the kihon katas practiced by the Nahate styles such as Goju ryu and Uechi ryu as well as Shito ryu and Kyokushinkai.

Here is a video of Seienchin performed by a Shitoryu competitor:


Here you can see that this kata is really based on shiko dachi. Though I am not familiar with the details of the Naha-te katas, I know shiko dachi is so popular it is included in almost all katas (ie. Seipai, Saifa, Gekisai, Sanseiru, Seisan, Suparinpei, etc) and on the other hand, kiba dachi is not used in them. It is almost like a mirror image of shotokan. How interesting.

So, let’s get back to the fundamental question, why we do not have Shiko dachi in our katas?

First we must all remember the following fact. When Funakoshi 船越義珍 (1868 – 1957) learned his karate in Okinawa in the late 19th century, the Okinawan senseis had not needed to use any specific terms for the stances and the techniques. The only terms they had were the names of the katas. An Okinawan instructor had only one or two students. Sensei showed the techniques with his body and did not give out any explanation nor needed to put the terms to different techniques. He would say, “Watch this kata” or “Do this technique like this.” My assumption is that Funakoshi was taught the katas but did not have the distinction between kiba dachi and shiko dachi. Thus I assume he probably allowed both stances; kiba dachi and an open toed stance (shiko dachi). He might have considered it as a relaxed stance of kiba dachi when one cannot do a tight kiba dachi stance. Old Funakoshi TekkiTo have a perfect kiba dachi you really have to pull your toes in and the inner muscle tension in the thighs. I am sure you have experienced that as soon as you relax the legs your toes point out easily. In fact, look at the stance of Funakoshi (photo right). This is from Tekki and his stance is definitely not a strict kiba dachi as we know it. I say this is much closer to shiko dachi. Some people try to give him an excuse that he was old and he could not hold a good kiba dachi. Funakoshi-tekki-shodanBut here is another photo of Funakoshi doing Tekki when he was younger. I think that is very disrespectful to Funakoshi sensei if we said he was too old for kiba dachi as he was only in his 50s in this photo (left). So, in the old shotokan training, I assume he allowed shiko dachi like kiba dachi in different katas.

We no longer practices this stance and we wonder why. Was this stance considered by someone else other than Funakoshi as an unnecessary or even a bad stance? OK we will continue our investigation.

As I pointed out above, Funakoshi himself used shiko dachi in Tekki and I assume he did in other katas such as jion, jutte and gankaku. Thus, I do not think Funakoshi considered open toed stance, shiko dachi as unnecessary nor bad. I am sure Funakoshi taught this stance to Nakayama because he added this stance in his book.

If so, was it purposely dropped from or changed in the Shotokan syllabus by someone else?

I believe so. You naturally wonder why. Let us look into this further. You must know the history of early shotokan, namely before WWII (specifically in 20’s and 30’s) to understand what has happened to the karate Funakoshi originally brought from Okinawa. He started to teach karate in Tokyo in 1922 when he was 54 years old. He was not the first Okinawan to bring karate officially to the mainland Japan.Motobu In fact, Choki Motobu 本部朝基 (1870 – 1944, photo left) moved to Osaka Japan in 1921. His karate level was excellent and was very agile, which gained him the nickname Motobu no Saru, or “Motobu the Monkey.” His existence was almost unknown for three reasons. He could not speak Japanese well and he had no influencial connection in Japan. In addition, he was reputed by some to have been a violent and crude street fighter. His training was so severe not too many students could last out and continue to be his followers. Eventually he decided to return to Okinawa without having made much impact to the karate world in Japan. But he was a big opposing factor as he openly criticized Funakoshi and claimed his karate was poor.

Funakoshi moved to Tokyo in 1922 and to his credit he was successful in promoting karate in Japan. He could speak Japanese and he was lucky to make a good connection with Jigoro Kano 加納治五郎 (1860 – 1938), the founder of Judo. So, he was the only karate sensei in Tokyo then but soon other Okinawan masters started to arrive in Japan. The most notable one was Kenwas Mabuni 摩文仁賢和 (1889 – 1952), the founder of Shito ryu. He visited Tokyo in 1928 and decided to move to Osaka in 1929 to live there. Funakoshi‘s profession was a school teacher and was not a full time karate practitioner when he lived in Okinawa. He learned from two teachers, Azato and Itosu but he learned only Shuri-te style of Okinawa karate.Mabuni_Kenwa2

On the other hand, Mabuni (photo right) was a policeman he had a lot of time to practice karate. In fact, he trained almost full time and had two famous teachers: Itosu from Shuri-te and Higaonna from Naha-te. So, Mabuni learned Okinawa karate in a very comprehensive way. As a result he became legendary for his encyclopaedic knowledge of kata and their bunkai applications. By the time he arrived in Japan, he was regarded as the foremost authority on Okinawan karate, bunkai and karate history.

So, what had happened here with Funakoshi teaching in Tokyo? Most of his students were the young students from various universities in Tokyo. However, some adults from other martial arts such as judo, jujitsu (Otsuka, later founded Wado ryu) and kenjutsu (Shimoda and Konishi, later founded Jinen ryu) also joined to learn karate on the professional level. So far so good. However, he faced the first problem as the students became more advanced. They wanted to know a lot more about bunkai and to practice kumite. Ever since he arrived in Tokyo, he only taught kata and some bunkai explanation but there were no kihon or kumite. He was very adamant about sticking to only kata training and prohibited any jiyu kumite. In fact, he resigned from one of the university karate clubs as he found the students there were secretly practicing jiyu kumite. It is clearly recorded that many of his students were very dissatisfied with the way Funakoshi trained them.

MabuniOn the other hand, Mabuni had a different attitude. He welcomed jiyu kumite and went as far as a full contact karate using the protectors (photo left). Many young university students became curious about Mabuni so they along with Otsuka and Konishi visited Mabuni dojo to learn about kumite. Moreover, Mabuni knew more advanced Shurite-kata such as Unsu, Sochin, Gojushiho, etc.

So, what did this mean to Funakoshi? In the 30s he faced the serious competitions from Motobu, Mabuni and other Okinawan masters. What did he do? Now what we have to put a spotlight on Funakoshi’s talented son, Gigo or Yoshitaka 義隆 (1906-1945) who moved to Japan with his father when he was only 17 (1923). By 1930 Funakoshi senior was over 60 years old while his son was 24 years young but had been practicing karate for more than 12 years under his father (Gigo started the official training when he was 12 years old). Gigo was not an expert yet but he proved to be very talented and strong.

In 1934 Funakoshi’s number one assistant instructor, Shimoda died from an illness. After this Gigo took over the position and started to make a strong influence on Shotokan karate which his father brought from Okinawa. Funakoshi Senior believed the basic 16 katas or even fewer were enough. Gigo disagreed as he was young and wanted to learn more katas. What did he do? He went back to Okinawa to learn more kata and bunkai. He also visited his competitor, Mabuni to learn more Shurite katas. Gigo is also credited with many different kicking techniques such as mawashi geri, ushiro geri and yoko kekomi. Yoshitaka or GigoHe also believed in the low stances (photo right) and did not like the high stances such as neko ashi and sanchin dachi. I also assume Gigo changed from the moving techniques using high stances to the still ones with low stances such as kiba dachi and zenkutsu dachi.

You also know it is easier to move if the toes are pointed outward like shiko dachi. So, when you do the body shifting from one kiba dachi to another in a kata like jion and jutte, your stance becomes more like shiko dachi. Gigo Funakoshi also shows that this is true (photo above). I know your instructor will tell you to pull your toes in. You also realized that you can squat deeper if your toes are pointing out and it is extremely difficult to lower your hips when you have a perfect kiba dachi. This is natural when you consider how your leg bones and the hip joints are constructed.

So, Gigo thought shiko dachi was a defective kiba dachi and decided to drop it from the syllabus. In all katas, the stance was limited to kiba dachi and shiko dachi stance was discouraged or even prohibited. Funakoshi Senior was not happy with all the changes his son was making. Why was he quiet? It was mainly due to the period the Japanese society was going through in 30s and 40;s, the war period starting with China in 1937. Gichin must have compromised and allowed those changes as long as Gigo did not bring in the jiyu kumite and the tournaments.

Egami and Gigo FunakoshiWe know that Gigo had a big influence on both Egami 江上茂 (1912 – 1981, kumite with Gigo who is on the  right of this photo), the founder of Shotokai 松濤会, and Nakayama, one of the key organizers of JKA 日本空手協会, until Gigo’s passing in 1945 at the very young age of 39. It is very interesting that two organizations, despite the same origin (Funakoshi Sr and Jr) developed their own techniques including the stances so differently in such a short period of time. I will not go into the details of the differences between Shotokai and JKA Shotokan in this article but look at shiko dachi in Shotokai (photo left). shotokai shiko dachi 2The feet are pointing outward on a straight line which is very unique and it does not look like the stance we know. Try to stand in this way. You will find it is very unbalanced and will not be able to keep the stance if you are pushed from the front or the back. A quick lateral body shifting is possible but I am not sure why they chose this stance and called it shiko dachi. Maybe a Shotokai practitioner can enlighten us.

So where did shiko dachi originate? Many readers may already know that it is from sumo 相撲, the traditional Japanese wrestling. The exact period of origin is not know but it could be traced back to the 6th century or earlier. Prior to becoming a professional sport in the Edo period (the 17th century), sumo was originally performed on the grounds of a shrine or temple. It is still popular in Japan and it is broadcasted on TV as a tournament of 15 days that happens six times per year. It keeps some old traditions such as throwing the salt in the ring which is supposed to purify the ground. 相撲四股立ちWomen are barred from the ring so the workers have to be all male. There is a controversy regarding this policy at the sumo association and many people both men and women have protested but so far this policy has not been changed.

More on sumo if you are interested: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumo

The most popular stance in sumo is called shiko dachi (photo above) in which one can take a very deep squatting position. The rule for winning and losing in sumo is pretty simple. A sumo wrestler must either push his opponent out of the ring (4.55 meter diameter) or throw him (no body parts except the feet must touch the ground of the ring). In the ancient time, they were allowed to hit and kick even if it could hurt an opponent. One famous story tells that one sumo wrestler killed the other by kicking him and he won. Nowadays these two techniques are prohibited, however, an open hand slapping is still permitted though it is not considered as an honorable technique in the modern sumo.

In fact, shiko dachi is so popular in Japan because many athletic coaches believe this is the best stance for their athletic activity.



For example, you will find the warm up and the leg exercise using shiko dachi in a basket- ball training (photo left above) and a soccer practice (right). I do not need to show the photos of the practitioners in judo and western wrestling but they also engage in the exercises such as deep squats using shiko dachi. I want to show one more example. One of the most popular sports in Japan is baseball. The photo left below shows the kind of exercise the Japanese high school baseball team members do (below left).


イチロー 2



The photo right, shows the famous Japanese baseball player, Ichiro Suzuki  鈴木一郎 who now plays for New York Yankees. One of the exercises he does on the field as shown in the photo is his stretch using wide shiko dachi.

So what had happened to shiko dachi when Nakayama formed JKA in middle of the 20the century?

Nakayama was not only highly trained in karate, he also was aware of the modern science and the medical aspect of the human body. He knew the great benefit one can get from training shiko dachi. To show the respect to Funakoshi he did not change the stance from Kiba dachi to Shiko dachi. SquatWhat he did was to keep this stance for the leg exercises. We practice the deep squats often in our training in Japan (photo right) to strengthen our legs. Nakayama added shiko dachi in his book, Dynamic Karate. Unfortunately, he failed to put the explanation of how this stance should be used and what are the benefits in his book. I wonder if this omission was intentional or not. Regardless, as a consequence, I am afraid that the importance and the necessity of shiko dachi has not been relayed and taught enough to the western shotokan practitioners.

Then what are the benefits of shiko dachi specifically? There are two major benefits that I can quickly point out. One of them is the training of the inner muscles that connect the thighs to the pelvis. Training these muscles is not easy but it is extremely important for karate. I have mentioned these muscles in my previous articles on Weight Training and Relaxation. I will not explain these muscles again but I ask you instead to read those articles as you can get the full story behind this subject. One thing you can do is to do the slow and deep squats using wide shiko dachi. You will feel the tightening or the tiring of the muscles that are located inside of your thighs. You may wonder if the same muscles can be trained by using kiba dachi. Try the deep squats using kiba dachi. Where do you feel the pressure? Musculature_Deep_HipDo you not feel it mostly on the front of the thighs? Of course, you will use the hamstrings and the rear muscles (gluteus maximus) too but you will use the quadriceps the most. In shiko dachi even though you will use the quadriceps you will use the inner muscles such as adductor longus, adductor magnus, etc (see the illustration). I have mentioned in the past that strengthening these muscles are very important to any of the athletic activities including karate. The inner muscle exercise cannot be maximized if you practice with kiba dachi alone.

Second benefit of shiko dachi is its mobility. In seienchin kata you will see the practitioner moves from shiko dachi not only sideways (back and forth) but also towards the front in an interesting way. Of course you can do this with kiba dachi but you can do it easier with shiko dachi as your feet are pointing outward which makes the stance less restricted. So, kiba dachi gives you more solid or stable stance but shiko dachi can be more mobile. You can keep a steady kiba dachi when you are in that position without any body shifting. However, when you body shift regardless of moving towards left or right in kihon or katas such as Tekki, Jion, Jutte, etc. your feet will naturally open up, though your instructors will yell at you to keep your feet parallel.

Then the natural question may be, “If this stance is so beneficial, why didn’t Nakayama explain more about shiko dachi?” My answer will be only my guess. I did not hear the explanation directly from Nakayama when I met him before his passing. However, I know that he had a great respect to both Funakoshi senior and junior. He was sort of sandwiched between these two instructors. So, he believed shiko dachi could be used in the katas interchangeably with kiba dachi but he did not want to put it in writing. He only added this stance in the Tachikata (stances) list without any explanation. He intended to explain the importance to his students in person and I know that he had done so to the JKA instructors. However, this omission in his book resulted in one of the shotokan’s mysteries.

Kanazawa Seienchin

It is widely known that to supplement shotokan kata, Sensei Kanazawa 金沢弘和 (1931 – present) practiced seienchin himself. I am sure one of the reasons to practice this kata was to get familiar with shiko dachi. I suspect his followers must be aware of or practice shiko dachi kata such as seienchin. Here is a video of Kanazawa performing Seienchin: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0U7KPaiZJ08

NishiyamaI also hear that late Nishiyama sensei 西山英峻 (1928 – 2008) created a kata called Kitei in which shiko dachi is included.

Here is a sample video of this kata: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=McVf2bTvqSs#t=13

If this is the case, the big question is why didn’t this information spread more to the western world? I cannot answer that question but I wish to recommend strongly to all Shotokan practitioners that we will add this to our standard training syllabus now so that we can enjoy the benefits from this excellent stance.


Shiko dachi was a part of original shotokan karate that was brought from Okinawa by Gichin Funakoshi. Shiko dachi was used almost interchangeably with kiba dachi in the shotokan katas in the early 20th century.

Gichin’s son, Gigo being physically strong emphasized the strong and steady stances such as low zenkutsu and low kiba dachi. He not only discarded or ignored the high stances such as neko ashi and sanchin but also shiko dachi as it is less stable (though more mobile) than kiba dachi.

Nakayama, knowing the benefits of shiko dachi kept the stance in the syllabus. However, he did not push this stance as he decided to keep all kiba dachi in the JKA katas. He wanted to use it only in the leg (mostly squats) exercises. He failed to write the benefits and its use in his famous book, Dynamic Karate. We do not know if the omission was intentional or unintentional. Unfortunately, it resulted in the general omission (forgotten) of this stance from the standard shotokan training.

If you have a problem making the strict kiba dachi because of the lack of flexibility or whatever the reason, now you can relax. You no longer need to feel depressed or discouraged. You found that Shiko dachi is an excellent stance and it is more flexible than kiba dachi. I will not go so far to recommend replacing kiba dachi with shiko dachi in our katas, as I believe the kiba dachi requirements of the inner thigh tension and butt tucking are important and necessary for us to master. Since you can use shiko dachi in your shotokan katas such as jion and jutte, learning a Naha-te kata such as Seienchin is not necessary to practice shiko dachi. Including the exercises both in kihon and hojo undo 補助運動 using shiko dachi is, I conclude, critically important and necessary for any shotokan karate practitioners to improve their karate.

Nakayama Shiko-Dachi